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142 Cards in this Set

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What virus is assoc w/vasculitis?
Blue Tongue
In esophageal obstruction/choke where do things commonly lodge?
cervical portion of esophagus
Projectile vomiting - your #1 DDx should be?
azalea toxicity
Andromedotoxins are assoc w/bradycardia or tachycardia?
bradycardia
corrugated intestines
Johne's Dz/ParaTB/Chronic Wasting Dz
What is the best test for Johne's Dz/ParaTB/Chronic Wasting Dz in cattle?
AGID
ELISA for small ruminants
T or F
Dx of Johne's Dz/ParaTB/
Chronic Wasting Dz is difficult.
T
What age animals are most affected by Johne's Dz/
ParaTB/Chronic Wasting Dz?
young
CS seen 1-2 yrs of age
Johne's Dz/ParaTB/Chronic Wasting Dz - hypoproteinemia or hyperproteinemia?
hypo
What is most common in the ileal regions of the SI?
Johne's Dz/ParaTB/Chronic Wasting Dz
In pregnancy toxemia/fatty liver syndrome - when does fatty liver occur?
last month of gestation
Who is mainly affected by pregnancy toxemia/fatty liver syndrome?
thin & obese females w/single, large twins or triplets
Pregnancy toxemia/fatty liver syndrome - recumbent animal - is this an emergency?
yes - must be aggressive
must remove fetus (induction or c-section)
What can be done to prevent pregnancy toxemia/fatty liver syndrome?
proper nutrition
U/S to ID multiple fetuses
sheep found dead with icterus & hemolysis
Cu toxicosis
sheep w/Hburia (port wine urine)
Cu toxicosis
What is most diagnostic of cu toxicosis?
kidney [Cu] levels
adult parasites live in abomasum & SI & produce 5,000-10,000 eggs/day
Hemonchus contortus
Barber Pole Worm
Which is the only dewormer administered SQ?
moxidectin
Which macrolide (avermectin) dewormer should not be used?
doramectin
When is moxidectin used?
only in emergency situations rapid resistance reported
_______ = all of worm eggs & larvae already on pasture & all worms in animals that were NOT tx
refugia
large _____ = large # of worms likely to be susceptible to deworming
refugia
How can you determine the resistence status of worms in herd?
fecal egg count reduction test - Modified McMaster's
How do you dose for smart drenching of a herd?
dose for largest animal in herd (underdosing leads to resistance)
2x sheep/cattle dose for all deworms except levamisole
1.5x sheep/cattle doses of levamisole
T or F
FAMACHA slows dev of resistance of dewormers.
T
T or F
FAMACHA should only be used for adults.
T
T or F
Anthelmintics should be rotated.
F
assoc with Retrovirus
requires biopsy to confirm
tx is surgical removal
enzootic nasal tumor
T or F
Heads should NOT be bandaged a/f dehorning.
F
sinusitis involving frontal sinus usually has hx of ____
dehorning
sinusitis involving ______ sinus is 2ndary to tooth problems
maxillary
Pharyngitis Dx - external palp of pharyngeal area induces ______ & painful response
coughing
most common form of pasteurellosis
pneumonic form
T or F
Pasteurellosis is one of the most important infectious bacterial dzs of sheep & goats.
T
the 1st sign m/b death
pasteurellosis
chronically (lungers) affected will have lambs & kids with decreased lung capacity, decreased weight gain, decreased feed efficiency & death
pasteurellosis
tx fo pasteurellosis
florfenicol
timicosin - deadly in goats & humans <30 min)
predisposes to pasteurellosis
parainfluenza type 3 (PI3)
histopath: nodular "hyaline" scars in bronchiolar walls
mycoplasma pneumonia of sheep
How long do goats shed mycoplasma pneumonia for?
life
Lentivirus
long incubation period (2-4 yrs)
OPP
PM: large (2-3x), heavy lungs
OPP
bright red blood
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)toxicity
brown blood
nitrate-nitrite toxicity
thick brown to black crusts at commissures of mouth
lesions resolve in 14-21 days but may persist if immunocompromised so look for other problems
contagious ecthyma/orf
how long are orf scabs infective in the environment?
long time
similar virus to orf but antigenically distinct
DDx from orf by location
ulcerative dermatitis
ulcers, necrosis, scabs
moist exudate
lesions do NOT involve oral mucosa
ulcerative dermatitis
T or F
Orf is NOT zoonotic.
F
severe suppurative inflammation of the skin affecting ears, muzzle, face, tail
dermatophilosis
rain scald/rain rot
thick crusts containing zoospores that are stable in environment for at least 4 mos
dermatophilosis
rain scald/rain rot
T or F
dermatophilosis (rain scald/rain rot) is zoonotic
T
_____ footrot is an infection of the distal extremities (granulation tissue)
strawberry
greenish discoloration of wool
fleece rot
lesions on back & withers - no scabs
fleece rot
rare condition affecting young rams - head & neck edema, especially eyelids
malignant edema
How is Actinobacillosis dx?
cytology & Gram stain
facultative, Gram positive, coccoid bacillus
caseous lymphadenitis
organism survives for long periods in dark, damp areas
caseous lymphadenitis
in sheep abscesses contain pale green material that forms an "onion-ring" like structure that matures to calcified mass
caseous lymphadenitis
in goats abscesses contain greenish-cream colored material with a pasty texture
caseous lymphadenitis
_____ is dx by culture of organisms from periphery of necrotic area
caseous lymphadenitis
T or F
Animals infected with caseous lymphadenitis should be culled b/c it's very contageous and hard to control
T
caseous lymphadenitis - you should not open the ______ near the rest of the flock
abscesses
most common mange of goats
demodectic mange
loss of intracellular cohesiveness leading to blister formation & acantholysis
pemphigus foliaceus
endophyte fungus that produces ergovine toxin
fescue toxicity
assoc w/parakeratosis
zinc deficiency
severe contagious dz of sheep - less severe in goats

most common cz of lameness in sheep
footrot
causative agent of footrot in sheep & goats
Dichelobacter nodosus
causative agent of footrot in cattle
Fusobacterium necrophorum
animals experience tetanic msucle contractions when startled
myotonia congenita
fainting goats
Dx: joint fluid is purulent
(DDx from Chlamydophila - just fibrin)
mycoplasma polyarthritis
retrovirus that causes:
arthritis in adults
encephalitis in young
CAE
transmitted from dam to kid via ingestion of colostrum or milk
target tissues - joints/synovium, mammory gland, lungs & brain/CNS
CAE
What is the hallmark pathological lesion of CAE?
lymphocyte proliferation
What are the 4 clinical syndromes of CAE?
chronic progressive arthritis in adults goats > 6 mos
leukoencephalomyelitis - young
interstitial pneumonia
mastitis
chronic progressive arthritis in adult goats - synovial fluid has decreased protein & increased cell count of 90%, monomuclear cells, primarily lymphocytes
CAE
What is the most common method of Dx of OPP?
serologic testing - AGID
What are the 2 syndromes of white muscle dz/nutritional muscular dystrophy?
cardiac form - acute to peracute
skeletal muscle form - subacute (more common)
T or F
The 2 syndromes of white muscle dz/nutritional muscular dystrophy can occur concurrently.
T
causes acute tubular necrosis
metal toxicity
Abx toxicity
______affects goats b/c they are notorious for eating household items & zn containing objects
metal toxicity
Abx toxicity - toxic effects are enhanced by ______
dehydration
What Abx can cause toxicity?
aminoglycosides
TC & sulfonamides (most common)
rare in sheep & goats but when it does occur it is usually in pet goats or club lambs
ethylene glycol toxicity
histopath: birefringent crystals arranged in sheaves or rosettes
ethylene glycol toxicity
acorns are palatable and readily consumed by ____ leading to acorn/oak toxicity
goats
poorly fed, heavily parasitized animals most susceptible
oak (acorn) toxicity
most commonly affected organs are mouth, esophagus, GIT & kidneys
oak (acorn) toxicity
constipation with excretion of mucus covered feces & hematochezia
oak (acorn) toxicity
Lepto is dx by what kind of serology?
MAT - microagglutination titer (or ELISA)
tx for lepto
oxyTC & dihydrostreptomycin
name the 3 lepto interorogans serovars in sheep
L. pomona
L. icterohemorrhagica
L. hardjo
name the 3 lepto interrogans serovars in goats
L. pomona
L. icterohemorrhagica
L. grippotyphosa
transmitted via contaminated urine
lepto
risk of infection higher after heavy rainfall esp in poorly drained environment
lepto
Nonhost adapted lepto serovars can cause severe _____ dz, ______ & _______
hemolytic dz
interstitial nephritis
tubular nephrosis
with the urogenital form - outbreaks of abortion & stillbirths
lepto
fever, anorexia, depression, anemia, Hburia, icterus in sheep and goats
sudden death in sheep
lepto
how can lepto be prevented?
multivalent vaccines > 3 mos (2x/yr)
limit contact with carrier cattle, wild animals, rodents
block access to standing water
most common medical problem in small ruminants
dz of males (esp catrated males)
obstructive urolithiasis
obstructive urolithiasis - what is the most common crystal? (composition varies according to geographic location)
Mg phosphate - struvite
most calculi form in ____ urine so ______ is the best prevention
alkaline

urinary acidifiers
What is the most important factor concerning obstructive urolithiasis?
water intake
obstructive urolithiasis - most common sites
urethral process &/or sigmoid flexure
crystals &/or blood seen on preputial hairs is a good indicator
obstructive urolithiasis
pain
distended bladder seen on U/S
exteriorize penis & examine urethral porcess
obstructive urolithiasis
why is obstructive urolithiasis an emergency?
bladder can rupture
What is the medical tx for obstructive urolithiasis?
fluids
anti-inflammatories (flunixin)
Abx
catheterization & retrograde flushing
Wapole's soln via cystocentesis to dissolve crystals
What is the surgical tx of obstructive urolithiasis if the animal is going to slaughter?
penile urethrostomy
What is the surgical tx of obstructive urolithiasis if the animal is a pet or breeding animal?
tube cystotomy
bladder marsupialization (most common)
For tx of obstructive urolithiasis the ____ (vermiform appendage/"worm") should be removed.
urethral process
What is the max dose of lidocaine or mepivicaine?
bupivicaine?
lidocaine 6 mg/kg max
bupivicaine 2 mg/kg max
distended pear shaped ventral abdomen
ammonia smell
oliguria or anuria
ruptured bladder
What is the definitive dx of a ruptured bladder?
increased peritoneal creatinine (>2x serum)
caused by interaction of local bacterial flora (most commonly C.renale) w/excess urinary urea d/t high protein diet (legumes, concentrates)
ulcerative posthitis/pizzle rot
ammonia damages mucosal surfaces
ulcerative posthitis/pizzle rot
problem of feedlot, club or show lambs or kids
ulcerative posthitis/pizzle rot
what is the most common form of listerosis?
focal encephalitis causing septicemia, visceral infection & abortion (abortion does not usu occur w/encephalitis)
can NOT survive in pH<5 (properly packaged silage) - #1 cause of survival is poor packaging of silage
listerosis
unilateral dz
more common in winter
listerosis
invades host thru breaks in buccal mb & ascends trigeminal nerve roots
listerosis
dysphagia
facial & vestibular lesions
listerosis
most common clinical sign is recumbent with head tilt
listerosis
corneal ulceration from KCS common in goats
listerosis
dx by ID of microabscesses in brainstem & liver
listerosis
CSF - increased WBC count w/>50% mononuclear cells, remaining cells neuts
listerosis
Tx for listerosis?
penicillin
oxyTV
florfenicol
therapy less effective in sheep than in goats - poor px for sheep
listerosis
improvement seen in 1-3 days vaccines of limited value
listerosis
zoonotic - public health concern - can cause bacterial meningitis & abortions in humans
listerosis
T or F
All dzs that cause abortions in small ruminants are zoonotic.
T
______ - meningial worm of India, Japan, Korea, Russia
Setaria sp
______ - meningeal worm of N. America
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
1st clinical sign seen is ataxia
cerebral nematodiasis
CSF >15% eosinophils
cerebral nematodiasis
Tx: early & aggressive
ivermectin & panacur
dexamethasone - may cz abortions
cerebral nematodiasis
hairy fleece esp around head & neck is most common
BDV/Hairy Shaker
How is the fetus affected if pregnant ewe infected with BDV >85 days of gestation?
normal, weal or stillborn
How is the fetus affected if pregnant ewe infected with BDV <85 days of gestation?
fetus aborted, macerated or mummified
surviving lambs - disturbances of cerebellum & hair follicles
PI - shed high levels of virus in all secretions & excretions