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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rat order, family
order - Rodentia
family - Muridae
1st rat experiment
J.M. Philipeaux
Effects of adrenalectomy in albino rats
Rat secondary enclosure:
70-76 F w/ relative humidity of 50-70%

10-15 air changes/ hour of fresh air

12-14 hour light & 10-12 hour dark
*rats susceptible to phototoxic retinopathy - prevent w/ light intensity at cage level 130-300 lux
Rat primary enclosure:
cage space needed is function of animal weight & specific physiological or protocol requirements

solid bottom to prevent pododermatitis

most commonly used is polycarbonate & polypropylene

solid bottom cages sanitized 1-2x per week
Rat general appearance:
12 teats (3 pectoral pr; 3 abdominal pr)
Norway rat:
scientific name
Rattus norvegicus

larger & more aggressive; small, thick ears, tail 85% length of body
Black rat:
scientific name
R. rattus

larger ears & tail longer than body
SD size

F344 size
SD larger than Wistar

F344 smaller than either of the outbreds
Rat sensory organs:
Harderian gland
Orbital venous sinus
eyes exophthalmic

Harderian gland medial to orbit (excess porphyrin = chromodacryorrhea)

orbital venous sinus for blood collection (beneath medial aspect of orbit

lack color vision (one study suggests dichromic color vision)

olfactory signals are strong

most sensitive hearing range is 8kHz to 32 kHz
rat vertebral formula
C7 T13 L6 S4 Cd27-30
rat dental formula
2(I1/1, C0/0, PM0/0, M3/3)
rat teeth
incisors grow continuously (hypsodont)
rat salivary glands
parotid = serous
submandibular = mixed
smaller sublingual = mucous
rat hibernating gland
brown fat – multilocular adipose tissue in ventral/ lateral neck
rat stomach
forestomach (cardiac portion) = non-glandular

corpus (pyloric portion) = glandular
limiting ridge separates portions – esophagus enters lesser curvature thru fold in the ridge (why they can’t vomit)
rat liver & gallbladder
4 lobes; NO gallbladder
rat respiratory system:
maxillary recess
-maxillary recess (sinus) b/w maxillary bone & lateral lamina of ethmoid bone *contains the lateral nasal gland (Steno’s gland)

– lungs: left has single lobe; right (cranial, middle, accessory, caudal lobes) *pulmonary vein has cardiac striated muscle fibers w/in its wall
rat genitounrinary system:
– male accessory sex glands: *bulbourethral (Cowper’s ) glands at base of penis *seminal vesicles surrounding the bladder *Prostate

– female has bicornuate uterus w. 2 distinct ossa uteri and cervices

– unipapillate kidney - useful for cannulation studies
rat cns
olfactory bulbs; smooth cerebrum; 2 parafloccular cerebellar lobes
rat cardiovasular system
– heart- left thoracic wall b/w 3rd & 5th ribs

– blood supply to atria (unlike higher mammals) largely extracoronary from branches of internal mammary & subclavian arteries
rat diets:
ad libitum
*natural ingredient – most commonly used in research; nutrient composition varies by batch
– open formula – info. on amount of each ingredient is available
– closed formula – ingredient info. is confidential

*purified – nutrient conc. less variable; more $ & less palatable

*chemically defined – $ & lack palatability

– ad libitum – reduced longevity & increased incidence of neoplasia found in SD, Wistar, F344
rat female reproductive physiology:
– female vagina closed at birth (vaginal plate)- open b/w 40-80 days age

– puberty earlier than males; variation in reports (40-60; 45-47)

– estrus begins before full reproductive competency reached (36 days)

– estrous cycle of 4-5 days length throughout year
*in proestrus uterus may look “ballooned” w/ fluid (don’t mistake for hydrometra)

– ovulation 8-11 hour after onset estrus (usu.12-2 A.M.) – ova viable 10-12hr
rat male reproductive physiology:
– testes descend from abdomen ~15 days age

– sperm 1st produced 45-46 days age but fertile (puberty) at 62-65 days age
rat estrus & pregnancy detection, parturition time
– estrus
- ear quivering when back or head stroked
- lordosis (“sway back”) when stimulate pelvic area
- swollen vulva; vaginal wall appears dry

– pregnancy - can palpate after 10 days (accurate after 12 days)
- by 14 days mammary gland & nipple development evident

– parturition 21-23 days after coitus (as early as 19 days)
rat reproduction husbandry:
calorie restriction
– continuous light reported to cause persistent estrus & cystic follicles w/out formation of corpora lutea

– caloric restriction: +/– cessation of estrous cycle & delayed sexual maturation
rat parturition, nursing
– increased nest-building activity ~5 days prepartum & continues thru lactation

– usu. 1-3.5 hours in length

– nursing usu. starts after all pups are born

– litter size decreased after 9 months age; pregnancy rate decreases after 1 year

– dystocia is rare

– cannibalism not frequent (indicator of maternal stress)
rat early development
– altricial, nidicolous (don’t leave nest for a while), hairless, blind, poorly developed limbs, short tails, closed ear canals

– inverse relationship b/w fetal or birth weight & litter size

– 1st hear @ 9 days; fully haired @ 7-10 days; eyelids open @ 14-17d

– incisors erupt @ 6-8 days; molar 1 (16 d); molar 2 (18 d), molar 3 (32-34d)
rat sexing
anogenital distance greater in males
rat weaning
20-21 days (as early as 17 days)
rat estrus syncronization
40mg methoxyprogesterone in drinking water for 6 days then IM w/ 1IU pregnant mare’s serum
rat ai & et
– AI complicated by rapid coagulation of sperm *essential to induce pseudopregnancy in recipient female by prior mating w/ vasectomized male, mechanical stimulation of vagina, or electrical stimulation of cervix

– ET - embryos collected 2-4d after females bred; transferred to uterus or oviduct of pseudopregnant recipient