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49 Cards in this Set

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What is included in a CBC?
hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC WBC, RBC indices, differential WBC
hemoglobin measures ?
the total amount of hemoglobin in the blood
hematocrit measures
the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume
Hemoglobin and hematocrit both increase in cases of ?
Dehydration
Hemoglobin and hematocrit both decrease in cases of?
hypervolemia (An abnormal increase in the volume of circulating blood) and resulting hemodilution (An increase in blood plasma volume resulting in reduced relative concentration of red blood cells)
Low RBC counts are related to
anemia
Clients with hypoxia will have an increase or a decrease in RBC?
increase a condition AKA polycythemia
A Leukocytes count (WBC) determine?
the total number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter of whole blood.
An increase in WBC indicated?
bacterial infection
A decrease in white blood cells indicates?
viral infection
A normal Neutrophils % in the differential count is?
Increase indicates?
55-70%
Increase indicates stress or acute infection
A decrease in the neutrophil count indicates? hint: R.A.D
Radiation, aplastic anemia, dietary deficiency
A normal lymphocyte percent is ?
20-40 %
An increase in lymphocytes indicates? hint. CI-vI-m
A decrease in lymphocytes percent indicates? l.s.i
Increase-chronic infection viral infection mononucleosis
Decrease-leukemia, sepsis, immunodeficiency
What counts could be used to determine leukemia?
decreased lymphocytes, increased eosinophils, increased basophils, decreased platelet count
A normal platelet count within the WBC differential count is ?
150-350 X 10^3/ml^3
An increased platelet count indicates? hint- m.p.r.i
malignant disorders, polycythemia, rheumatoid arthritis, iron deficiency anemia
Serum electrolytes are used to measure?
acid base -electrolyte imbalances
If a client is being treated with diuretics for hypertension or heart failure, what common test would be performed to measure electrolyte balances?
serum electrolytes
The most commonly order serum electrolytes test are ?
sodium potassium chloride bicarbonate ions
What type of test is a serum electrolyte ?
venous blood test.
Normal lab. value of sodium
135-145 mEg/L
What is the normal lab. potassium value ?
3.5 5.0-mEq/L
What is normal lab value for chloride?
95-105 mEq/L
What is a normal lab value for calcium?
4.5-5.5 mEq/L
What is a normal lab value for Magnesium?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L or 1.6-2.5 mg/dl
WHat is a normal lab value for Phosphate (phosphorus)?
1.8-2.6 mEq/l
Normal white blood cell count.
5-10 x 10^3 /ml.^3
An increased white blood cell count (Leukocytosis )
infection, inflammation,,trauma
A decreased WBC count (leukopenia) indicates?
autoimmune disease, drug toxicity, bone marrow failure
Acidity (pH)
7.35 - 7.45
Chloride
98 - 106 mEq/L
Creatinine
0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sed-Rate)
Male: 1 - 13 mm/hr Female: 1 - 20 mm/hr
Platelet Count
150,000 - 350,000/mL
Potassium
3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Normal value for Prothrombin (PTT)
25 - 41 sec
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
4.2 - 6.9 million/µL/cu mm
Sodium
135 - 145 mEq/L
Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
10-20 mg/dl
Normal values for creatinine values
females =O.5-2.2 mg/dl males=0.6-1.2 mg/dl ***elderly have decreased
Normal cholesterol values
<200mg/dl or <5.20 mmol/l
Reason for a low RBC count
pregnancy, over hydration, hemorrhage, dietary deficiency, sickle cell, anemia, chronic illness, organ failure
Reasons for high level of RBC's
disease, dehydration, heart failure, chronic obstruction pulmonary
The purpose of Prothrombin time (PT).
evaluate the adequacy of the extrinsic system and common pathway in the clotting mechanism
The purpose of a Partial Thromboplastin time (PPT)
used to assess the intrinsic system and the common pathway of clot formation. used to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
The purpose of of the CPK (MB) creatinine phosphokinase
support the diagnosis of myocardial muscle injury (infarction) indicates neurologic or skeletal muscle diseases. qualifies the degree of M.I. & timing the onset of infarction
Purpose of a Troponin test.
performed on clients with chest pain in order to determine if the pain is due to cardiac ishemia. Specific indicator of cardiac muscle injury. predictor of future cardiac events.
Purpose of Sed. Rate test.
non-speific test used to detect illness associated with acute and chronic infection, inflammation,neoplasm and tissue necrosis or inraction