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32 Cards in this Set

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WBC
4,500 - 11,000
>11,000 - Acute Infection
<4,500 - Viral Infection
RBC
M - 4.2-5.4
F - 3.6-5.0
Low - Anemia, hemmorrhage leukemia
High - Polycythemia
Hgb
M - 14-17
F - 12-16
Low - Anemia, hyperthyroidism, liver, kidney disease
High - Burns, polycythemia, COPD, CHF
HCT
M - 42-52%
F - 36-48%
Low - Anemia, leukemia <20%-cardiac failure or death
High - >60% spontaneous clotting
PLT
140,000 - 400,000
Low - Bone marrow suppression, anemia & viral infections
High - Thrombocytopenia, RA, inflammation, infection and anemia
Rational for CBC
Baseline Assessment
Prognosis
Response to treatment
Recovery
Serum Electrolyte Levels
Detection of potential or actual imbalances
Sodium (Na)
135-145
Potassium (K+)
3.5-5.3
Calcium (Ca)
8.4-10.2
Magnesium (Mg)
1.8-2.4
Phosphate (P)
2.5-4.5
Rationale for Urinalysis
Baseline Assessment, Diagnose & monitor treatment of kidney and urinary tract infections, Diagnose and monitor treatment of metabolic diseases not related to urinary system
Normal SG - Urinalysis
1.015-1.025 specific gravity (SG)
Normal pH - Urinalysis
4.6-8.0
Glucose present in Urine indicates:
Diabetes, brain tumor or injury, MI, infection, lowered renal threshold
Ketones present in Urine indicates:
Diabetes, starvation, fasting, high fat or protein diet (Adkins), low carb diet, prolonged vomiting, prolonged exercise & stress
Bilirubin present in Urine indicates:
Hepatitis, liver disease, obstructive biliary tract, parenchymal injury
Bacteria Present in Urine
UTI
WBC present in Urine
Infection
Urine Culture Rationale
Prognosis, response to treatment and recovery
Normal Urine Culture (Negative)
<10,000 organisms/mL or urine
Urine Culture (Positive)
Bacterial count of >100,000 per mL of urine indicates infection -- E. coli, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Lkebsiella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans
Sputum Culture Rationale
Diagnose disease of the lower respiratory tract
Determine antiobiotic or drug sensitivity
Determine course of treatment
Evaluate effectiveness of therapy
CT scan - Rationale
Evaluate trauma, Rule out pathologies, Cancer staging & treatment and Biopsy guidance
CT with contrast always:
Check for allergy to iodine
Contraindications for CT
Pregnancy, allergy to iodine, elevation of BUN or creatinine, or food or beverage intake within 4 hours of exam time.
Rationale for CXR
Evaluate pulmonary or cardiac disease and chest trauma, Determine locan of chest tubes, feeding tubes and subclavian catheters, Progression of TB, Post-bronchoscopy
Electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) - Rationale
Identify heart rhythm disturbances, Diagnose disease, Evaluate pacemaker function, Determine response to cardiac drugs, Evaluate risk for arrhythmias post MI
Rational for EEG
Diagnose epilepsy, tumor, abscess, infarct, injury, hematoma, CVA, narcolepsy, tremor, Alzheimer's, Determine Brain Death
Rationale for MRI
Study blood flow, Evaluate disease
Rationale for Ultrasound
Diagnosis