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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Prosimian
Describe all taxa within the suborder
Prosimii, such as lemurs and tarsiers.
Simian
used as an adjective or noun to describe monkeys
and apes.
Tarsier
the genus Tarsius that
share characteristics of prosimians and simians.
Tarsier
tarsiers are nocturnal, have large eyes and mobile ears, have
"toilet claws" on the foot, and have a two-part mandible. Unlike
prosimians, tarsiers lack a naked rhinarium and dental comb.
Great ape
identify the apes within the family
Horninidae
Lesser ape
gibbons and siamangs. Lesser apes are smaller than great apes
and are almost entirely arboreal,
Distinguished Features of Prosimians
1. Indigenous to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.
2. Possess a naked, moist snout called a rhinarium with a fissured, fixed upper
lip resembling the rhinarium of dogs and cats (Fig. 1).
3. All are nocturnal except the genera Lemur, Varecia, Hapalemur, Zndri,
and Propithecus.
4. Possess a "toilet claw" on the second digit of the foot for grooming.
5. Possess a toothcomb for grooming, which is formed from the lower
incisors.
6. Possess a sublingual structure for cleaning the toothcomb.
7. The mandible is in two parts joined at the midline by cartilage.
8. Dental formula: 4 incisors + 2 canines + 6 premolars + 6 molars X 2
= 36 (except Indridae with 30).
9. All have epitheliochorial placentas except Tarsiidae, which has
hemochorial.
Distinguished Features of Platyrrhine Primates
1. Indigenous to tropical South and Central America.
2. Muzzle is flattened with broadly spaced, laterally flared nares (Fig. 1).
3. Some species possess prehensile or pseudoprehensile tails.
4. Do not possess cheek pouches or ischial callosities.
5. Require vitamin D3 in their diet; ingested vitamin D, is not bioavailable.
6. All have estrous cycles, except Cebus spp., which menstruate.
7. All are arboreal.
8. All are diurnal except Aotus spp. (the only nocturnal simian primate).
9. Dental formulas:
Cebidae: 4 incisors + 2 canines + 6 premolars + 6 molars X 2 = 36
Callitrichidae: 4 incisors + 2 canines + 6 premolars + 4 molars X 2
= 32 (except genus Callicebus with 36 as in Cebidae).
10. All have hemochorial placentas.
Distinguished Features of Catarrhine Primates
Indigenous to Africa, Asia, and extreme southern Europe (introduced
to Gibraltar).
Muzzle is elongate (varying in degree among genera) with narrowly
spaced, turned-down nares (Fig. 1).
Some species possess ischial callosities for sitting.
Cheek pouches for storing food are found in some genera of Cercopithecidae.
All have menstrual cycles.
Some species are adapted to terrestrial living while others are primarily
arboreal.
All can utilize vitamin D2 in their diet.
Dental formula: 4 incisors + 2 canines + 4 premolars + 6 molars X 2
= 32
All are diurnal:
All have hemochorial placentas.
Callitrichidae:
Marmosets and Tamarins