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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
teratogenic effects
anything that crosses the placenta like rubella and measles, drugs and alcohol. what happens to the mother happens to the baby.
fertilization and implantation
fertilized in the ampulla called conception which takes 24 hours, zygote has 44 chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. then moves down the tube through cillias and preristalsis 3-4 days cells go through mitosis and implants in the uterine mucosa in the fundus.
fertilized egg, goes through mitosis, amniotic cavity has actoderm as the outer layer, yolk cavity has endoderm for internal organs and between the two cavities is the mesoderm which is muscles and tissues.
the first 8 weeks, heart starts beating and tissues forms. it looks like human.
9 weeks on till birth
maternal fetal interphase, fetal side is where baby grows and is smooth and shiny. the maternal side is rough and it is where exchange of oxygen and nutrients takes place
umbilical cord
life line to the baby from mom, delivers food and 02, 20-22 inches has whartons jelly which prevents blood vesels from compressing. 2 arteries carries deoxygenated blood to the placenta and 1 artery that carries o2 blood to the fetus.
fetal membrane
excretes hormones and has its own circulation. chorion is the oter layer and is connected to the fetal side and the amnion is the inner layer and blends with umbelical cord
amniotic fluid
shock obserber, regulates temp, protects and keeps baby warm. contains urea, nitrogen, skin and hair products, has about 1-4 liter of fluid at end of pregnancy. can get amniocentesis to look for any chromosomal abnormalities like down syndrome
presumptive signs
subjective, what mom thinks
amenorrhea, n&v, breast changes, quickening(movement of baby 16-18 weeks) chadwicks sign (purplish color in peri area.)
probable signs
hegars signs(softening of the isthmus between cervix and fundus) goodells sign (softening of the cervix) ballotment (16-18 wks feeling fetus by feeling rebound of baby) braxton hicks, pregnancy test
positive signs
see, hear, feel we know i am
ultrasounds, feeling of movement, fetal heartbeat
hormonal changes
increased estrogen and progesterone because of HCG level (human choloronic gonatropid), then placenta takes over which supresses FSH, LH, mentration
uterus enlarges and thins out, in the beg. it moves up to the xiphoid process then ligtning (drops down)
obstretical history
gravida - how many pregnancy
para- how many live births
estimated date of confinement
nageles rules first day of last period, go back 3 months add 7 days
normal discomforts
*ptyalism-too much saliva from increase estrogen. mouthwash, chewgum, suck candy.
*n&v from increase hcg levels and changes in carb metabolism, use dry to wet crackers then carbonated drinks like 7up
*pyrosis-heartburn because increase size of fetus, smaller frequent meals, decrease fat, low sodium antacids and avoid lying down after eating.
*uti's form frequent urination, wipe front to back, acidify like cranbery juice, and do pelvic exercises.
*constipation - walk it off to increase peristalsis, add fluid then fiber like wheat bread, nuts and grains and unprocesed outmeals
*edema- in feet and ankles elevate feet above heart no tight clothing
*hard time breathing- left side lying
danger signs of pregnancy
-visual disturbances
-severe or sudden headaces
-edema in hands and feet
-rapid weight gain
-severe abd. pain
-signs of infection like fevers chills diarrhea
-vaginal bleeding
-persistant vomiting
-irratable muscles
-absence in fetal movement
nutritional needs
high patasium like oranges, dry apricots, cofee
300 calories more per day
weight gain
about 21-35 lbs of total weight gain. first trimester 3 lbs, 2nd and 3rd about a pound a week
acts as an endocrine gland and excretes hcg which excretes progesterone and estrogen to stop produciton of eggs
hyperemesis gravidarum
excessive vomiting,
-causes dehydration, acid base imbalance, cardiac dysrhtmias from low potassium and jaunidice and hemorrhage from low vitamins.
-record i&o, turgor and mucosa,monitor fhr.
-iv feeding, no solids till vomiting stops, blands solids first like toast and crakers or liquids, can have tpn if severe.
-provide oral care, and emotional support
multiple pregnancies
spontanious abortions, anemia, pih, and bleeding are comon, congenital anomalies, entangled cords and growth probs and complicated labor,
bleeding defecits
includes placenta previa, abruptio placentae, disseminated intravascular cuagulation, postpartum hemmorhage, pih, thrombobhlebitis
ectopic pregnancies
implants in fallopian tube, ruputures and bleeds. slight vaginal bleeding, hypovelemic shock. sharp, localized one sided pain refered to the shoulder, abd, rigid and tender.
-ultrasound and labs
-salpingectomy, salpingostomy and replace blood. if unruptured ectopic use methotrexate (folic aced antagonist) destroys the cells.
spontaneous abortion
miscarriage before the 20th week, therapeutic abortion interuption for medical or social reasons. bleeding with or w/o cramping. iv fluids, blood therapy, d&c, evacuation,rest, iron supplements
*threatened- bleeding & cramping, alive or dead, less activity, sedation avoid stress or orgasms
*inevitable- increased bleeding, dilation, termination by d&c
*complete-everyting came out
*incomplete- some are still in
*missed- fetus dies & remains in uterus, monitor blood clotting
*septic- malodorous bleeding, high temp, carmping, abd tenderness, c&s, antibiotic ampocillin
*habitual- aborted 3 or more consecutive times
placenta previa
placenta covering cervix from past c-sections, and age. complete, incomplete, marginal. painless bright red bleeding after 20th week. ultrasound.
-c-section, hospital stay, blood type crossmatch, no sex
abruptio placentae
placenta seperates prematurly from uterine wall
-bleeding, suden severe pain, increase uterus from hemorhage, grade I mild no distress, II moderate distress baby, III severe shock, dead fetus.
-ultrasound, hormonesa and lab test.
-monitor fetus, retention catheter, fluid therayp, side lying
disseminated intravascular coagulation
changes in blood clotting, too much thrombin couses clots in vesels
-sudden chestpain, dyspnea, restless, cyanotic, frothy blood tinged mucus.
-iv therapy, heparin, 02 10-12L/min, early delivery, I&o, side lying