Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/5

Click to flip

5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CA 19-9 Tumor Marker- Normal:<37units/mL
This is a carbohydrate cell-surface antigen. It exists on the surface of some cancer cells.
CA19-9 measures the level of tumor-associated antigens found in blood serum; can support diagnosis of pancreatic or hepatobiliary tumors, and monitor response to treatment.
Platelets-Normal:150,000-400,000 or150-400x10^9/L
The platelet count is an actual count of the number of platelets(thrombocytes) per cubic millimeter of blood. It is performed on patients who develop petechiae, spontaneous bleeding, increasingly heavy menses, or thrombocytopenia and to monitor the course of disease/therapy for thrombocytopenia and bone marrow failure.
Most platelets exist in the bloodstream, 25% exist in the liver and spleen. Causes of thrombocytopenia include: Reduced production of platelets(bone marrow failure or infiltration of fibrosis, tumor), sequestration of platelets(hyposplenism), accelerated destruction of platelets(disseminated intravascular coagulation), platelet loss during hemorrhage, dilution with large volumes of blood transfusions
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
< 5ng/mL or 5mcg/L

This tumor marker is used for determining the extent of disease and prognosis in patients with cancer (especially GI or breast). It is also used in monitoring the disease and its treatment.
CEA is a protein that normally occurs in fetal gut tissue. By birth, detectable serum levels disappear. It exists in the blood stream of patients with GI cancers but is also found in pt’s who have a variety of other cancers (breast, pancreatic, hepatobiliary), as well as benign diseases (UC, Crohns, diverticulitis, cirrhosis, chronic smokers).
Not all colorectal cancers show CEA and therefore it is not a reliable diagnostic tool. Initial CEA levels can help determine the stage of the tumor so in example smaller tumors would show lower CEA levels. Also post treatment patients have CEA monitored for signs of recurring tumors. If found in other fluids aside from blood indicates metastasis. This test is commonly performed on peritoneal fluid and elevated levels would indicate metastasis to the peritoneum or pleura respectively. Elevated levels in cerebrospinal fluid indicate CNS metastasis.
CA-125
0-35 u/mL
CA-125 is used in detection of ovarian cancer. It also is used to determine the extent of the disease and to monitor the response to treatment. This marker has a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for ovarian cancer. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are accurate markers for germ cell tumors of the ovary, C-125 is an extremely accurate marker for nonmucinous epithelial tumors of the ovary. It is elevated in 80% of pt’s with ovarian cancer and helps support dx. This is also used as post treatment surveillance of ovarian cancer patients
Other tumors and benign processes can cause elevated levels. Diseases that affect the peritoneum such as cirrhosis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Other malignancies occurring in the female genital tract, pancreas, colon, lung, and breast can also be associated with elevated levels. Smoking can also falsely increase levels, and pt’s with recent abdominal surgery may have elevated CA-125 for up to 3 weeks after
CA 15-3: <31u/mL
CA 27-29: <38u/mL

These antigens are tumor-associated serum markers available for breast cancer monitoring. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most widely used tumor marker and is limited by poor sensitivity and specificity for patients with breast cancer. CA15-3 and CA27-29 are not sensitive for dx of primary breast cancer. 80% breast cancer pt’s have elevated CA 15-3 and 65% have elevated CA27-29.
Benign breast disease can also cause elevated levels. They can not be used to diagnose as many diseases can cause elevated levels. Better used to check response of metastatic disease to treatments.
Some other benign and malignant diseases that might elevate these antigen levels include ling, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and colon cancers, fibrocytic disease of the breast, cirrhosis, and hepatitis