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59 Cards in this Set

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bicarbonate
22-26

high = comp. resp. acidosis, metabolic alkalosis

Low = comp. resp. alkalosis, metabolic acidosis
high = comp. resp. acidosis, metabolic alkalosis
Low= comp. resp. alkalosis, metabolic acidosis
Bilirubin (total)
.2-1.3

High = biliary obstruction, hemolytic anemia, impaired liver func., pernicious anemia, prolonged fasting
High = biliary obstruction, hemolytic anemia, impaired liver func., pernicious anemia, prolonged fasting
Arterial/Venous pH
7.35 - 7.45

High = Alkalosis

Low = Acidosis
High = Alkalosis
Low = Acidosis
Arterial PaCO2
35 - 45

High = Comp. met. alkalosis

Low = Comp. met. acidosis
High = Comp. met. alkalosis
Low = Comp. met. acidosis
Venous PaCO2
42 - 52

High = respiratory acidosis

Low = respiratory alkalosis
High = respiratory acidosis
Low = respiratory alkalosis
Arterial PaO2
75 - 100

High = administration of high concentration of oxygen

Low = chronic lung disease, decreased cardiac output
High = administration of high concentration of oxygen
Low = chronic lung disease, decreased cardiac output
Venous PaO2
30 - 50
b-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
<100

High = Heart Failure
High = Heart Failure
Calcium
(Ca)
9 - 11

High = Acute osteoporosis, hyper parathyroidism, multiple myeloma, Vit D intoxication

Low = Acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, renal failure, Vit D deficiency
High = Acute osteoporosis, hyper parathyroidism, multiple myeloma, Vit D intoxication
Low = Acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, renal failure, Vit D deficiency
Chloride
95 - 105

High = Corticosteroid therapy, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, uremia

Low = Addison's disease, diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, vomiting
High = Corticosteroid therapy, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, uremia
Low = Addison's disease, diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, vomiting
Cholesterol
140 - 200

high = biliary obstruction, hypoparathyroidism, idiopathic hypercholesterolemia, renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes

low = corticosteroid therapy, extensive liver disease, hypethyroidism, malnutrition
high = biliary obstruction, hypoparathyroidism, idiopathic hypercholesterolemia, renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes
low = corticosteroid therapy, extensive liver disease, hypethyroidism, malnutrition
High density lipoproteins
HDL
Male >45
Femal > 55
Low densitity lipoproteins
LDL
<130
CK-MB
0 - 9
High = Acute myocardial infarction
High = Acute myocardial infarction
Creatinine
0.5 - 1.5

High = Severe renal disease
High = Severe renal disease
Fasting Glucose
70 - 100

High = Acute stress, cerebral lesions, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic insufficiency

Low = Addison's disease, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, insulin overdose, pancreatic tumor, pituitary hypofunction, postgastrectomy dumping syndrome
High = Acute stress, cerebral lesions, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic insufficiency
Low = Addison's disease, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, insulin overdose, pancreatic tumor, pituitary hypofunction, postgastrectomy dumping syndrome
Iron
Fe
50 - 150

High = Excessive red blood cell destruction

Low = Anemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency anemia
High = Excessive red blood cell destruction
Low = Anemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency anemia
Lactic acid
5 - 20
High = Acidosis, heart failure, shock
Magnesium
Mg
1.5 - 2.5
or
1.3 - 2.1

High = Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, renal failure

Low = Chronic alcoholism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, severe malabsorption
High = Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, renal failure
Low = Chronic alcoholism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, severe malabsorption
Oxygen Saturation
(Arterial)
95% - 98%

High = polycythemia

Low = Anemia, cardiac decompensation, respiratory disorders
High = polycythemia

Low = Anemia, cardiac decompensation, respiratory disorders
Phosphorus
2.8 - 4.5

High = healing fractures, hypoparathyroidism, renal disease, vitamin D intoxication

Low = Diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency
High = healing fractures, hypoparathyroidism, renal disease, vitamin D intoxication
Low = Diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency
Potassium
K
3.5 - 5.0

High = Addison's disease, diabetic ketosis, massive tissue destruction, renal failure

Low = Cushing syndrome, diarrhea (severe), diuretic therapy, gastrointestinal fistula, pyloric obstruction, starvation, vomiting
Total Proteins
6.0 - 8.0

High = Burns, cirrhosis, dehydration

Low = Congenital agammaglobulinemia, liver disease, malabsorption
Albumin/globulin ration
1.5:1 - 2.5:1

High = Multiple myeloma, shock, vomiting

Low = Malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, proteinuria, renal disease, severe burns
High = Multiple myeloma, shock, vomiting
Low = Malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, proteinuria, renal disease, severe burns
Sodium
Na
135 - 145

High = Corticosteroid therapy, dehydration, impaired remal function, primary aldosteronism

Low = Addison's disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, diuretic therapy, excessive loss from gastorintestinal tract, excessive perspiration, water intoxication
High = Corticosteroid therapy, dehydration, impaired remal function, primary aldosteronism
Low = Addison's disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, diuretic therapy, excessive loss from gastorintestinal tract, excessive perspiration, water intoxication
Albumin
3.5 - 5.0

High = dehydration, burns

Low = Chronic liver disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, congenital agammaglobulinemia, pregnancy,
High = dehydration, burns,
Low = Chronic liver disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, congenital agammaglobulinemia, pregnancy,
T4
Thyroxine
(total)
5 - 12

High = Hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis
Low = Cretinism, hypothyroidism, myxedema
High = Hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis
Low = Cretinism, hypothyroidism, myxedema
T4
thyroxine
(free)
.8 - 2.3

High = Hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis

Low = Cretinism, hypothyroidism, myxedema
High = Hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis
Low = Cretinism, hypothyroidism, myxedema
AST
Aspartate aminotransferase
7 - 40

High = Acute hepatitis, liver disease, myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction
High = Acute hepatitis, liver disease, myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction
ALT
Alanine aminotransferasee
5 - 36

High = Liver disease, shock
High = Liver disease, shock
Triglycerides
40 - 150

High = Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, liver disease

Low = malnutrition
High = Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, liver disease

Low = malnutrition
BUN
Blood Urea Nitrogen
10 - 30

High = Increase in protein catabolism (fever, stress), renal disease, UTI
High = Increase in protein catabolism (fever, stress), renal disease, UTI

Low = Malnutirion, severe liver damage
Uric Acid
male 4.5 - 6.5
female 2.5 - 5.5

high = Eclampsia, gout, gross tissue destruction, high-protein weight reduction diet, leukemia, renal failure

Low = Administration of uricosuric drugs
high = Eclampsia, gout, gross tissue destruction, high-protein weight reduction diet, leukemia, renal failure

Low = Administration of uricosuric drugs
B12
Cobalamin
200 - 1000

High = Chronic myeloid leukemia

Low = Malabsorption
High = Chronic myeloid leukemia

Low = Malabsorption syndrome, pernisious anemia, strict vegetarianism, total or partial gastrectomy
Zinc
50 - 150

Low = alcoholic cirrhosis
Low = alcoholic cirrhosis
aPTT
Activated partial thromboplastin time
24 - 36 sec

High = Deficiency of factors I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII; hemophilia, heparin therapy, liver disease
High = Deficiency of factors I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII; hemophilia, heparin therapy, liver disease
PT
Prothrombin time, protime
10 - 14 sec

High = deficiency of factors I, II, V, VII, and X; wafarin therapy
High = deficiency of factors I, II, V, VII, and X; wafarin therapy
D-Dimer
Negative

Positive = DIC, deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, unstable angina
RBC
Erythrocyte count
male 4.5 - 6.0 x 10-6
female 4.0 - 5.0 x 10-6

High = dehydration, high altitudes, polycythemia vera, severe diarrhea

Low = Anemia, leukemia, posthemorrhage
High = dehydration, high altitudes, polycythemia vera, severe diarrhea

Low = Anemia, leukemia, posthemorrhage
Hematocrit
male 40% - 54%
female 38% - 47%

High = Dehydration, high altitudes, polycythemia

Low = Anemia, hemorrhage, overhydration
High = Dehydration, high altitudes, polycythemia

Low = Anemia, hemorrhage, overhydration
Hemoglobin
male 13.5 - 18
female 12 - 16

High = COPD, high altitudes, polycythemia

Low = Anemia, hemorrhage
High = COPD, high altitudes, polycythemia

Low = Anemia, hemorrhage
platelet count
150 -400 x 10-3

High = Acute infections, chronic graanulocytic leukemia, chronic pancreatitis, currhosis, collagen disorders, polycytheemia, postsplenectomy

Low = Acute Leukemia, DIC, thrombocytopenic purpura
High = Acute infections, chronic graanulocytic leukemia, chronic pancreatitis, currhosis, collagen disorders, polycytheemia, postsplenectomy

Low = Acute Leukemia, DIC, thrombocytopenic purpura
WBC
4 - 11 x 10-3

High = Inflammatory and infectious processes, leukemia

Low = Aplastic anemia, S/E of chemotherapy & radiation
High = Inflammatory and infectious processes, leukemia

Low = Aplastic anemia, S/E of chemotherapy & radiation
Band neutrophils
0% - 8%

High = Acute infections
High = Acute infections
C - reactive protein
CRP
Negative or < 1.2

Higher = Acute infections, any inflammatory condition, widespread malignancy
Higher = Acute infections, any inflammatory condition, widespread malignancy
IgA
90 - 400

High = Autoimmune disorders, chronic infection, chronic liver disease, IgA myeloma, rheumatoid arthritis

Low = Burns, hereditary telangiectasia, malabsorption syndromes
High = Autoimmune disorders, chronic infection, chronic liver disease, IgA myeloma, rheumatoid arthritis

Low = Burns, hereditary telangiectasia, malabsorption syndromes
IgD
0.5 - 12

High = Chronic infection, connective tissue disease
High = Chronic infection, connective tissue disease
IgE
< 1

High = Anaphylatic shock, atopic disease (allergies), parasite infections
High = Anaphylatic shock, atopic disease (allergies), parasite infections
IgG
650 - 1800

High = hepatitis, IgG monoclonal gammopathy, infections: acute & chronic, systemic lupus erythematosus

Low = Acquired deficiencies, burns, congenital deficiencies, immunosuppresion, nephrotic syndromes
High = hepatitis, IgG monoclonal gammopathy, infections: acute & chronic, systemic lupus erythematosus

Low = Acquired deficiencies, burns, congenital deficiencies, immunosuppresion, nephrotic syndromes
IgM
55 - 300

High = Acute infections, liver disease, rhematoid arthritis

Low = congenital and acquired antibody deficiencies, lympocytic leukemia, protein-losing enteropathies
High = Acute infections, liver disease, rhematoid arthritis

Low = congenital and acquired antibody deficiencies, lympocytic leukemia, protein-losing enteropathies
Ketone bodies
(24 hr U/A)
20 - 50

High = marked ketonuria
High = marked ketonuria
pH of Urine
4 - 8

High = Chronic renal failure, compensatory phase of alkalosis, salicylate intoxication, vegetarian diet

Low = compensatory phase of acidosis, dehydration, emphysema
High = Chronic renal failure, compensatory phase of alkalosis, salicylate intoxication, vegetarian diet

Low = compensatory phase of acidosis, dehydration, emphysema
Protein
(24 hr U/A)
< 150mg /day

High = cardia failure, inflammatory process of urinary tract, nephritis, nephrosis, toxemia of pregnancy
High = cardia failure, inflammatory process of urinary tract, nephritis, nephrosis, toxemia of pregnancy
Specific gravity
(urine)
1.003 - 1.030

High = albuniuria, dehydration, glycosuria

Low = hyponatremia
Clay colored stool
Biliary obstruction or presence of barium sulfate
Tarry colored stool
More than 100 mL of blood in GI tract
Red colored stool
Blood in large intestine
Black colored stool
Blood in upper GI tract or iron medication
CSF pressure
60 - 150
mm H2O
mm H2O