Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ability of bacteria to take up DNA fragments from the environment and ultimately express the information encoded in the genes of that DNA is called _____________.
antimicrobial chemotherapy
Transformation has profound implications for ____________ ____________ because the genes that are taken up by transformation may be genes that code for antibiotic resistance.
Heat shocks
_____ ______ both tubes by submerging the bottom 1/2 of the tube into the 42'C waterbath and agitating both of the tubes by gently shaking them back and forth for 90 secs.
allows DNA to more readily enter the cells.
What does heat shocking do?
countable numbers
What should LB/AMP + plasmid look like?
Because some of the bacteria will lyse all of the plasmids.
Why should LB/AMP + plasmid have countable numbers?
No growth
What should LB/AMP - plasmid look like?
What should LB + plasmid look like?
What should LB - plasmid look like?
a virus that infects bacteria
________ are obligate intracellular parasites.
Viruses can not __________ proteins or _________ ATP and consequently can only replicate inside living host cells.
lytic cycle
a phage attaches to the host cell by means of tail fibers that recognize specific receptors on the surface of E.coli.
tail sheath
The phage then releases an enzyme, _________, which dissolves part of the bacterial cell wall. The phage ____ _______ then contract and drives the phage core, a hollow tube, through the cell wall injecting its DNA into the host cell.
high jacks
The phage then "_____ _____" the machinery of the host cell and the host cell begins to replicate the phage DNA and synthesizes the phage structural components.
phage DNA
The phage components are assembled and packaged with the ______ ____ and the host cell disintegrates releasing new phage that in turn can infect other host cells.
How long does the lytic cycle take?
100-200 new virions
How many new virions are released at the end of the lytic cycle?
a completely assembled virus capable of infecting a cell.
Their effect on agar surface coated with E.coli can be seen clearly as holes in the lawn of bacteria called ________.
the science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted.
Infectious diseases
a disease in which a pathogen invades a susceptible host and carry out at least part of their life cycle in the host.
Communicable disease
Any disease that can be spread from one host to another.
A disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in short time.
a epidemic that occurs worldwide.
To assume that our drinking water is _________ (safe to drink) our drinking wateris constantly monitored for both toxic chemicals, and microbial contamination.
indicator organism
sewage indicators
It is not practical to look for specific pathogens in out water supply, instead water is screened for ________ ___________ or __________ ___________.
Sewage indicators
_______ ________ are consistantly present inhabitants of the intestinal tract and their presense in water is a good indication that fecal material has entered the water supply.
There are two types of indicators that are currently tested for Streptococcus faecalis and __________ bacteria.
most probable number
What does MPN stand for?
the number of coliform bacteria per 100 mL of a water sample.
What are the units of MPN>
Presumptive test

MPN index
In the __________ ____ a set of lactose broth tubes containing Durham tubes is innoculated with the water sample. The presense of a gas bubble in the durham tube indicates a positive reaction. A presumptive MPN is then determined by comparing the number of positive tubes to a standard table called the ______ ______.
Confirmed test
In the _________ _____ EMB plates are innoculated with samples from any positive lactose broth tubes from the presumptive test. This media inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria while gram-negative bacteria that ferment lactose will grow with distinctive dark purple colonies or produce metallic green sheen on the agar surface.
Completed test
In the ___________ _____ a nutrient agar slant and a lactose broth tube are innoculated with colonies from the EMB plates that are consistent with gram - lactose fermenting bacteria. A gram stain is made from the nutrient agar slant to determine if the colonies on the EMB plate are in fact gram - rods. The lactose broth tube contains the pH indicator phenol red and a durham tube and if the bacteria are indeed coliforms the tube will turn yellow and the durham tube will have a gas bubble in it.
Positive results
_________ results for all three tests indicate the presence of coliform bacteria in the water.
Lancefield antigens are classifying streptococcal groups A-O based on different carbohydrates in the cell wall. They are used in order to determine what types of streptococcal infection you have so you can treat it.
What are Lancefield antigens and how are they used?
streptolysin O
What specific substance are you allowing to be expressed of by stabbing the steak plate from a throat swab?
streptolysin S
oxygen stable
streptolysin O
inactivated by oxygen
catalase test
If you have beta hemolytic colonies on the throat swab plate what test is done next? (other than a gram stain)
the hydrogen peroxide would not bubble once poured onto the bacteria.
What would the reaction look like for the catalase test on Throat swab plate?