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174 Cards in this Set

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What is the first priority when handeling infectious material?
First Priority
What is the first priority when handeling infectious material?
Safety
What is OSHA (NIOSH) mandated to do?
Indentify cause of disease/injuries
How often is the Code of Federal Regulations revised?
Anually
How many titles is the Code of Federal Regulations divided into?
50
Who publishes guidelines that most agencies have adopted?
CDC Centers for disease control
Applications of Universal precautions include what?
Blood, tissue and semen
What are regulated body fluids?
Blood and blood components, pleural fluids, amniotic fluid, synovial fluids, CSF, semen and dialysate
How often is segregated waste disposed of?
after 90 days, when 3/4 full or if foul odor is detected.
What is labeled on segregated waste?
labeled with boihazard sign or red in color, name, address, phone # of originator and have opened and closed date.
What should be marked on storage rooms?
Biohazard and Authorized Personnel only.
How many days is can you have biohazard in storage for?
7 days
When Ashore who does the command comply with in regards to disposal?
Local, state, federal, status of forces agreement (SOFA).
What should the monitoring system include?
Date, time, amount, type and disposition.
Criteria for overboard discharge?
Endangers safety
Creates nuisance
Compromises combat readiness
What conditions are needed for overboard discharge?
CO's approval
Over 50 nautical miles from shore
Properly packaged and negative buoyancy
Where are entries made afloat of overboard discharge?
Ship's deck log
Medical Journal
What is indicated in the ships deck log and Medical journal
date
time
ship's location
number of bags
How are unused medical supplies handeled?
handeled stored and disposed of as infectious waste.
In refference to unused medical supplies what is included?
referring to blood products and reagents- anything that has a shelf life.
What is microsampeling?
a method of blood collection by skin puncture.
When performing a capillary puncture where do you make your puncture?
on the side of finger (off center) across the striations of the fingertip
What will dilution of specimen and tissue fluid cause?
inaccurate results
HCT tubes should be filled how much?
100% to 3/4 full
Where should the touriquet be placed on patients arm?
approx 2-3 inches above antecubital area
What degree should the needle be when performing a venipuncture?
15 degrees, bevel up.
What anticoagulant is used when obtaining whole blood specimens?
EDTA
What color top is used for CBC and Differential WBC?
Purple/lavender tops
A powder anticoagulant is used in what color top tube?
light blue
What kind of studies are completed with the light blue tops?
Coagulation studies:
PT
PTT
a chelating agent that binds calcium.
Heparin is used in what color top?
green
What local instruction does NSHS follow?
NSHSSDIEGOINST 5100.1D (Safety manual)
What does NSHSSDIEGOINST 5100.3B refer to?
Blood Borne Exposure
What state governing body does NMCSD follow?
Cal-OSH
Public Health Department
What federal governing body does NMCSD follow?
OSHA (NIOSH)
What is the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)?
Compendium of all federal laws.
What governing body does the Navy follow?
NAVOSH
BUMED
What is the BUMED 6280.1A?
Management of Infectious Waste
What responsibilities does BUMED have in reference to Infectious Waste?
Dictates and approves contracts to discharge infectious waste.
What does SOFA stand for?
Status of Forces Agreement
What is the purpose of infection control?
Strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission.
What is PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
which is specialized clothing or equipment worn by a person to protect against hazard.
What is non-infectious waste?
medical waste not containing enough pathogens to be harmful
What is infectious waste?
liquid or solid waste with enough pathogens to cause disease.
When obtaining a specimen with a capillary tube how should the fingertip be posistioned?
horizontally
What is the best method for collecting blood?
venipuncture
If using a blood pressure cuff in obtaining veins how high should you inflate the cuff?
30 mm/Hg
What special plasma studies are performed when using a green top?
Ammonia
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
What are red tops mainly used for?
Chemistry
Serology
Blood bank
Serum Seperator Tube (SST) Tiger Tops are used for?
HIV
Grey top is used for?
glucose studies
Etho levels analysis
Inhibits glycolysis
What anticoagulant is in the grey top?
sodium fluoride
What is a complication of a blood draw?
Syncope
Infection
Continued bleeding
hematoma
The compound microscope has how many major systems?
4
Name the systems of the compound microscope.
Framework
Illumination
Magnification
Adjustment
What is the purpose of the framework?
Basic structure
Provides support for all other systems.
Base
What does the Framework house?
Power Switch
Illumination Controls
Field Diaphragm
What is the purpose of the arm on the microscope?
supports magnification and adjustment
What is the purpose of the stage?
Mechanical stage
moves specimen on XY axis
(has spring loaded clips or calipers to secure specimen to the stage)
What is the purpose of the Illumination Sysytem?
provides light
What is the condenser?
compact lens system
concentrates the light
What is the iris diaphragm?
works like the iris of the eye.
Controls the amount of light
How many componenets are in the magnification system?
4
What is Low Power on the objective lens?
10X (green)
What is the High Power on the objective lens?
40X (yellow)
What is the Oil Immersion on the objective lens?
100X (red or black)
What is the course adjustment used for?
initially focuses on specimen
What is fine adjustment?
the exact focus on specimen
What power do you use course adjustment on?
low power objective
What in the lab is used as a germacide?
Bleach solution
Who are the state governing bodies?
Cal Osh
Public Health Dept
Who are the federal governing bodies?
OSHA
What operates programs in every state to to improve health and safety of workers?
NIOSH
What is made up of a compendium of all federal laws?
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations)
What are the Navy governing bodies?
NAVOSH and BUMED
What is the BUMED instruction for management of infectious waste?
BUMED 6280.1A
What is used to reduce the risk of disease transmission?
Infection Control
What agency publishes guidelines for the wear of personal protective equipment?
CDC
Liquid or semi liquid blood, or contaminated items that would release blood or other infectious materials, items caked with blood, contaminated sharps, pathological or microbiological waste.
Regulated Waste
Where should you segregate waste?
At point of origin
Biohazards are emptied when or how often?
daily
Sharps containers must have what on it?
open and close date
How should a storage room used for biohazards be marked?
Biohazard-Authorized Personnel only
What is the max time biohazards can be stored?
7 days
Approved disinfectants are approved by who?
EPA
When was NIOSH established under OSHA?
1970
Regulated body fluids may be flushed in?
hopper or toilet
Properly packaged biohazard afloat must be weighted for?
negative buoyancy
Increased ATL (atypical lymphocytes) are associated with?
mononucleosis
What percentage of ATLS is considered abnormal?
10%
What is the normal count of platelets?
150,000-450,000
What is the lifespan of a thrombocyte?
9-12 days
How many fields do you count when doing a platelet estimation?
5-10
How do you calculate platelet estimation?
Count # of platelets in 5-10 fields, multiply by 20,000
What is an abnormal decrease in platelets?
thrombocytopenia
thrombocytopenic purpura, aplastic anemia, acute leukemia, Gaucher's disease, pernicious anemia and chemo radiation may cause?
thrombocytopenia
what is caused by increase in platelets?
thrombocytosis
What could ITP, splenectomy, and chronic myeloneous leukemia cause?
thrombocytosis
what appears as fine granules in RBC and is found in lead poisoning , alcoholism, megoblastic anemia?
basophilic stippling
What appears as iron deposits in iron stains, single or multiple granuals, rarely seen in Wright's Stain.
pappenheimer bodies
What nuclear fragment of DNA appears in hemolytic anemias, following a splenectomy, splenic atrophy, and megoblastic anemias?
holly-jolly bodies
What are of tetragon shaped and found in patients with HGB C and HGB SC disease?
Hemaglobin C crystals
What is a microtubule of miotic spindle that appears as threadlike filaments in the shape of a ring, rarely seen in pernicious anemia and lead poisoning and might indicate erythropoesis?
Cabot Ring
What test would you do if you were evaluating a pt with infection, neoplasm, allergy or immunosuppression?
Peripheral blood stain
The slide when doing a smear should look like what?
blunt arrowhead with feathered edge
The thick edge has an increase in smaller cells called?
Rouleaux Formation
Another name for eliptocyte?
ovalcyte
What is a normal colored RBC noted as?
normachromic
an increase in color?
hyperchromic
N/N means?
normalchromic/normocytic (written as color/cell shape)
What causes an increase or decrease in color or central palor of an RBC?
relative amount of hemoglobin
what is an abnormal variation in color , which usually appears blue?
polychromasia
what is the ph of distilled water
6.0
what is the decrease in color or increase in central pallor, which usually presents in iron deficiency?
hypochromic
what is the ratio of the volume of erythrocytes to that of whole blood?
hematcrit
what is the importance of the hematocrit
test for anemia and bleeding disorders
how many capillary tubes will you need and how much should you fill the tubes when performing a centrifugal microhematocrit?
2 tubes and 3/4 full
what angle do you hold the capillary tube ?
horizontal
how many minutes is the capillary tube centrifuged when doing a centrifuged microhematocrit
5 min
what is the revolution speed when doing a microhematocrit?
14,500
what type of capillary tube would you use when doing a compur M1100 microhematocrit
microcapillary tube
how much should you fill a microcapillary tube?
100%
what is the time and rpm for the compur M1100 microhematocrit test?
3 min 20 sec; 11,500
Normal hematocrit for Males?
40-55%
normal hematocrit for females?
36-48%
when should a microhematocrit be read?
within 10 min
identification in a blood smear is based on what?
cell color and morphology
what angle is the spreaded slide held when performing a blood smear?
30-40 degrees
what is the normal range for MONOS
1-10%
normal range for EOS
0-4%
normal range for baso?
0-2%
erythrocytes extude what when they mature?
nucleus
what is always 2 lobbed and the cytoplasm is granulated orange to pink in color?
eosinophil
what is normal rbc for females?
3.6-5.6
normal rbc for males?
4.2-6.0
morphology for normal in size and shape
normocytica
what is the abnormal variation in size?
aniosocytosis
what is an abnormally small rbc?
microcytic
what type of rbc is found in thalassemia, iron deficiency, and hemolytic anemias
microcytic
abnormally large rbc
macrocytic
what cell morphology is found in liver disease and megoblastic anemias (pernicious /b-12 anemia)
macrocytes
what is the variation in shape of an erythrocyte?
poikilocytosis
what is sickle or crescent shaped rbc found in anemias?
drepanocytes
what bullseye shaped rbc is often found in thalassemia?
target cell
normal range for EOS
0-4%
normal range for baso?
0-2%
erythrocytes extude what when they mature?
nucleus
what is always 2 lobbed and the cytoplasm is granulated orange to pink in color?
eosinophil
what is normal rbc for females?
3.6-5.6
normal rbc for males?
4.2-6.0
morphology for normal in size and shape
normocytica
what is the abnormal variation in size?
aniosocytosis
what is an abnormally small rbc?
microcytic
what type of rbc is found in thalassemia, iron deficiency, and hemolytic anemias
microcytic
abnormally large rbc
macrocytic
what cell morphology is found in liver disease and megoblastic anemias (pernicious /b-12 anemia)
macrocytes
what is the variation in shape of an erythrocyte?
poikilocytosis
what is sickle or crescent shaped rbc found in anemias?
drepanocytes
what bullseye shaped rbc is often found in thalassemia?
target cell
what is a round rbc known as hyperchromic or copper penny?
spherocyte
what is found in milofibrosis patients?
tear drop rbc's
what is a thorny shapped rbc?
acanothocyte
what is a fragment of an rbc?
schistocyte
what is a cigar shaped rbc?
eliptocyte
what is a spiky shapped rbc
burr
what is used to inhibit clotting enzyme thrombin by creating antithrombin?
heparin
what prevents conversion of prothrombin to thrombin?
heparin
what sites can you use for microsampleing on an adult?
ring and greater finger
what sites can you use for microsampeling in infants?
heel and great toe
if patient has a difficult vein what can be done to assist in venipuncture?
massage arm in an upward motion, forcing blood in vein
what anticoagulant is used in a light blue top?
sodium citrate
a lavender top may be refrigerated for how many hours?
24
PT & PTT are what type of studies?
coagulation
Wright stain is a combination of?
acid and base dyes