Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Identify the components of the reflex arc.
“the basic unit of the nervous system “

receptor --> sensory neuron --> CNS --> motor neuron --> effector
None
Explain the significance of reflex testing.
• reflex testing is an important diagnostic tool for assessing the condition of the nervous system

• distorted, exaggerated, or absent reflex responses may indicate degeneration or pathology of portions of the nervous system

• reflex testing, which may easily be performed, may help pin-point the area (spinal level) of spinal cord injury
None
State the “normal” results of the Patellar reflex test.
The normal response should be an extension of the leg.
State the “normal” results of the Patellar reflex w/ Jendrassik maneuver test.
This maneuver should enhance the normal response for the patellar reflex.
State the “normal” results of the Achilles tendon reflex test.
The normal response should be plantar flexion of the foot.
State the “normal” results of the Plantar reflex test
The normal response should that the toes curls down (the toes adduct and plantar flex).
State the “normal” results of the Biceps tendon reflex test
The normal response should be flexion of the forearm.
State the “normal” results of the Consensual light reflex test
The normal response should be pupillary constriction.

The normal response, referred to as the consensual light reflex, is that the opposite eye should also show some degree of pupillary constriction.
None
State the “normal” results of the Ciliospinal reflex test
The normal response should be ipsilateral pupillary dilation meaning that the dilation occurs only on the side in which the neck is scratched.
Describe the sensory transduction pathway.
Stimulus --> Receptor --> Sensory Neuron --> CNS --> “Sensation”
None
Receptor type: Ruffini’s Corpuscles: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
pressure(location, intensity)
Receptor type: Merkel’s Discs: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
light touch(location), light pressure
Receptor type: Root Hair Plexuses: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
light touch(hair)
Receptor type: Pacinian Corpuscles: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
deep pressure, vibration
Receptor type: Meissner’s Corpuscles: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
light touch(velocity of stimulus)
Receptor type: Free Nerve Endings: Describe it’s specific sensitivities.
pain, touch, heat/cold
Define sensation.
a state of awareness of an internal or external condition of the body
None
Define and explain the following term: perception.
conscious recognition (and interpretation) of a sensation.

It involves the:
1) recognition of the stimulus type and intensity

2) localization of the stimulus input
None
Define and explain the following term: sensory modality.
the quality, or distinct property, of a sensation

- over 20 different modalities that the body senses

- modalities may be conscious or unconscious
None
Define and explain the following term: adequate stimulus.
the type of stimulus to which a receptor is most sensitive

a receptor may respond to a stimulus other than their adequate stimulus if the strength is high enough
None
Define : Law of Specific Nerve Energies.
the sensation perceived when a receptor responds is always the same, regardless of stimulus strength and type
None
Describe Mechanoreceptors (sensory stimuli) and the general types of receptors sensitive to those stimuli.
(sensitive to mechanical energy)

1)Skin tactile sensibilities (touch, pressure, pain, movement of hair)

2)Deep tissue sensibilities (pressure, muscle stretch, muscle tension)

3)Hearing and Equilibrium

4)Arterial pressure
None
Describe Thermoreceptors (sensory stimuli) and the general types of receptors sensitive to those stimuli.
(sensitive to degrees of warmth)

1) Less than 30°C = Cold; More than 30°C = Warm

2) Pain at less than 10°C and pain at more than 45°C
None
Describe Photoreceptors (sensory stimuli) and the general types of receptors sensitive to those stimuli
(sensitive to light)

1) Vision: Rods and Cones of the retina
None
Describe Chemoreceptors (sensory stimuli) and the general types of receptors sensitive to those stimuli
(sensitive to specific chemicals)

1)Smell and Taste

2)Osmolality (osmotic pressure)

3)Arterial H+, O2, CO24) Blood glucose
None
Describe Nociceptors (sensory stimuli) and the general types of receptors sensitive to those stimuli
(sensitive to pain)

1) Pain caused by tissue damage and/or distortion

2) Caused by both physical and chemical mean (extreme of above stimuli)
None
Describe the lab activity: adaptation
The 100g weight placed on arm.If it was room temp, hot, or cold, subject eventually didn’t feel weight.
None
Describe and explain the results from the various exercises performed in the lab activity: afterimage
Not comepleted
Describe the lab activity: receptor distribution
In 1 inch square tested for different receptors: cold, heat, pain, and touch.

Subject felt a fraction of each test.
None
Describe the lab activity: two-point discrimination
Subject to differentiate two distinct sensations when the skin is touched simultaneously at two points. At least 1 mm apart before feeling separate points.
None
Describe and explain the results from the lab activity: shifting of physiological zero
Two fingers placed in hot water(from one hand), two fingers in cold. Then one finger from each in room temp water. Hot finger felt cold, Cold finger felt hot
None
Describe the lab activity: sensory interpretation
Hand in glove under running water. Hand felt wet due to pressure of water and coldness.
None
Describe the function of the Jendrassik maneuver during testing of the patellar reflex.
procedure in which a subject clasps both hands together and pulls outward (increases gamma efferent motor fiber discharge which increases the sensitivity of the muscle spindles and lowers the threshold of stretch reflexes)
What is a Reflex?
a quick response to a specific stimulus for the maintenance of homeostasis
Reflexes may be classified according to?
• processing site (spinal/cranial reflexes)

• tissue responding (somatic/visceral reflexes)

• complexity of circuitry (monosynaptic/polysynaptic reflexes)
None
What is a Monosynaptic reflex?
Reflex involving only one synapse (only a few exist)
What is a Polysynaptic (multisynaptic) reflex?
reflex involving several synapses (most reflexes)
What is an Ipsilateral reflex?
reflex involving afferent and efferent neurons both on the same side of the brain and spinal cord
What is a Contralateral reflex?
reflex involving afferent neurons on one side of brain and spinal cord and efferent neurons on other side