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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the parts of the axial skeleton?
1. skull
2. vertebral column
3. ribs
4. sternum
What are the parts of appendicular skeleton?
1. pectoral and pelvic girdles: anterior and posterior appendages
Histology
the study of tissue
What are the 4 types of tissues?
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nerve
Epithelial tissue
-most common
-skin, hollow organs
- bound tightly together, having very little extracellular material between them
How do connective tissues function?
- to bind and support other tissues
What type of epithelium tissue lines the body?
simple squamous epithelium
What are the two parts of connective tissue?
matrix and ground tissue
What are 2 types of neurons
sensory - cell body is in the middle
motor
What are the parts of the nervous system?
the brain and spinal cord
What is the scientific name for the lab rat?
Rattus norvegicus (underline it!!)
What does the cervical column consist of?
atlas and axis
What does the thoracic cavity consist of?
it is from the neck to the ribcage
What does the lumbar cavity consist of?
from the ribcage to the hip (rat has a tail)
simple squamous epithelium
-made up of a single layer of squamous shaped cells
-found lining the body cavity, lungs, and blood vessels
simple cuboidal epithelium
-made up of a single layer of cuboidal shaped cells
-the kidney tubules and many glads throughout the body are lined with this
Simple columnar epithelium
-made up of a single layer of columnar shaped cells
-most commonly found lining the digestive tract
-in many cases, the surfaces of the columnar cells are modified by presence of microvilli or cilia
stratified squamous epithelium
-made up of numerous cell layers with the outermost layers consisting of squamous cells; the inner cells may be cuboidal or columnar in shape
-found lining the mouth and esophagus and the external surface of the body (skin)
stratified columnar epithelium
- found in only a few limited areas of the body
- pharynx, conjunctiva, and urethra
- the cells in the outermost layer are columnar, the cells of the inner layers are more cubiodal or irregular in shape
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
- columnar epithelium which apperas stratified but is really made up of only one layer of cells- results bc nuclei of the columnar cells are located at different levels within the cells bc cells are different heights
- in respiratory tract
transitional epithelium
-found exclusively lining the urinary system
- consists of several layers of cuboidal or irregular shaped cells, and is capable of changing its shape as regions of the urnary system become distended
How are epithelial tissues arranged?
In sheets which serve to cover the internal and external surfaces of the body
How are epithelial tissues classified?
according to the shape of the cells which make up the epithelium, and the number of cell layers present
How are connective tissues classified?
extracellular material, called the matrix, composed of fibers in a homogenous ground substance that may be liquid, jelly-like, or solid.
How are connective tissues identified?
-cell type
- the type of matrix material present
Connective tissue proper
-connective tissue whose matrix contains fibers in various amounts of ground substance
Two types of c.t. proper and describe each
-"loose" (areola) tissued contains a few fibers in a delicate arrangement
- fibrous connective tissue is tough - tendons contain abundant well-organized fibers
adipose tissue
- a special form of loose c.t. in which cells store FAT in large droplets
blood
c.t. w/ a liquid matrix.
- main connective tissue
cartilage
-matrix w/rubbery consistency
-cells- chondrocytes
- pliable and supports structures such as the ear and nose
bone
-the hardest c.t.
- impregnated w. ca salt
- bone cells (osteocytes) are housed in small cavities of the matrix known as lacunae
- along w/blood, a main c.t.
2 forms of blood
spongy
compact
5 types of connective tissue
1. c.t. proper
2. adipose tissue
3. blood
4. cartilage
5. bone
3 types of muscle tissue
1. skeletal
2. smooth
3. cardiac aka stratified
intercalated disks
found in cardiac muscle
aaaaaaaaaaaaah
ventral
abdominal or lower surface; bellyside
cranial
nearest or towar the head; cephalic (anterior)
anterior
head end; cranial end
posterior
tail end; caudal end
caudal
away from the head, referring to the tail
proximal
near the source of attachment
distal
away from the source of attachment
optic foramen
holes that eyes come in
atlas
1st vertebra
axis
2nd vertebra; rotation and movement
pectoral girdle
clavical and scapulae; not attached to vertebral column but suspended by muscles
what is the pelvic girdle made of?
2 innominate bones that meet one anothe rat the pubic symphysis (cartilage in women)