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57 Cards in this Set

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Sodium
135-145
Potassium
3-5
Glucose
70-100
Magnesiun
1-2
Calcium
8-10
Chloride
95-100
BUN
10-20
Creatinine & Bilirubin
1
Albumin
3-5
Total Protein
6-7.8
T4(total)
5-12
PT/INR
12-15/2-3
PTT
60-70
ALT (Alanine Transaminase)
7-40
AST (Aspartate Transaminase)
10-40
Bounding pulse, tachy, hypotension, pale & dry skin, edema, weight gain, thirst, renal failure, weakness, headache, confusion, seizures, vomiting, diarrhea
Low Sodium (s/s)
Tachy, HTN, decreased cardiac contractility, flushed skin, increased urine, watery diarrhea, nausea, dry & sticky mucous membranes, increased thirst, tremor and hyper-reflexia, dry tongue
High Sodium (s/s)
Weak, thready, variable pulse rate; pedal pulses difficult to palpate, decreased shallow breaths, dyspnea, anxiety, muscle weakness, anxiety, lethargy, depression, confusion, leg cramps, weakness, vomiting, nausea, constipation, abdominal distension
Low Potassium (s/s)
Irregular & slow HR, decreased B.P., muscle twitching and paralusis, GI hypermotility, hyperactive bowel sounds, diarrhea, muscle cramps, irritability, anxiety
High Potassium (s/s)
Don’t usually occur until level drops below 1 mEq/L; muscle twitching, tremors, hyperreactive reflexes, mood changes, apathy, depression, confusion, growth failure in children, convulsions, hallucinations, tetany, vomiting, diarrhea
Low Magnesium (s/s)
Neuromuscular symptoms most common [decreased tendon relexes and decreased neuromuscular activity], hypotension, Brady, flushing and sensation of warmth, possible cardiac arrest, weakness and lethargy, respiratory depression
High Magensium (s/s)
tetany, seizures, hyperactive bowel sounds, abdominal cramps, irritability, depression, hypotension, respiratory arrest, oliguria, decreased myocardial contractility, increased bleeding and bruising, dry and brittle nails and hair
Low Calcium (s/s)
muscle weakness, increased fatigue, hypotonic bowel sounds, constipation, anorexia, headache, personality changes, coma, lethargy, heart block, HTN, cardiac arrest, polyuria, polydipsia, renal colic, kidney stones, lethargy, confusion, nausea/vomiting
High Calcium (s/s)
Slow and shallow respirations [S &S of metabolic alkalosis], Hypotension, muscle tremors & twitching, diarrhea
Low Chloride (s/s)
Deep & rapid respirations, weakness, lethargy, stupor, unconsciousness
High Chloride (s/s)
---insulin o.d., cachexia, hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, bacterial sepsis, increased ecercise, liver disease
Low Glucose (cause)
--- DM, stress, steroid use, pancreatitis, chronic liver disease, brain trauma
High Glucose (cause)
same osmolarity as normal plasma; No osmotic pressure differences
Isotonic
lower osmolality than normal plasma
Hypotonic
higher osmolality than normal plasma
Hypertonic
What type of solution are these?
1 NS (0.9%)
2 LR
Isotonic
What type of solution are these?
1 D5W
2 0.45% & 0.225% saline
3 D51/2NS, D51/2NS
Hypotonic
What type of solution are these?
1 3% or 5% saline
2 10% or 50% dextrose
Hypertonic
Fluids remain in the ECF
Isotnic effect on ICF
H20 pulled out of vessels and into cells

Increases the cell H20
Hypotonic effect on ICF
Cause H20 to be pulled from the cells and into the vessels

Results in increased vascular volume & decreased cell H20
Hypertonic effect on ICF
Replaces ECF losses and expands vascular volume quickly
Isotonic effect on ECF
Decreased vascular volume
Hypotonic effect on ECF
Increases vascular volume of ECF
Hypertonic effect on ECF
Expands vascular volume quickly

Replaces ECF losses
Indications for use : Isotonic
Treat and prevent cellular dehydration

Provides free H2O to the cells
Indications for use: Hypotonic
Treats specific problems

Used in hypgolycemia

When serum sodium is too low [<115 g]

Used to pull excess fluid from cells & promote osmotic diuresis.

Decreases cellular swelling
Indications for use: Hypertonic
Liver disease

S & S of FVE

Caution in renal failure & CHF
Isotonic CONTRAINDICATIONS
In pt.’s w/ brain injuries [ leading to cerebral edema]

Those w/ increase ICP

Hypotension

During code situations

Abnormal fluid shifts [3rd spacing]
hypotonic CONTRAINDICATIONS
Those already at risk for cellular dehydration

In caution with those with renal failure and <3 failure
hypertonic CONTRAINDICATIONS
Band Neutrophils Normal value
5-10
Segmented Neutrophils Normal value
41-71
Eosinophils Normal value
1-3%
Basophils Normal value
0-1
Lymphocytes Normal value
24-44%
Monocytes Normal value
3-7
Causes for a Decreased count in______?
Aplastic and Iron deficiency anemias.
Viral disease
Agranulocytosis
Addison's disease
Neutropenia
Band Neutrophils
Cause for a Decreased Count in____?
aplastic iron deficiency anemia
Segmented Neutrophils
Cause for a Decreased Count in____?
stress (burns, shock)
adrenocortical hyperfunction
Eosinophils
Cause for a Decreased Count in____?
stress
hypersensitivity reaction
pregnancy
Basophils
Cause for a Decreased Count in____?
cancer
leukemia
adrenocortical hyperfunction
aplastic anemia
renal failure
MS
Nephritic syndrome
SLE
viral infection
Lymphocytes
Cause for a Decreased Count in____?
lymphocytic leukemia
aplastic anemia
viral disease
cancer collagen
Monocytes