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45 Cards in this Set

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List the four functions of the urinary system
1. removes unwanted wastes
2. stabilizes blood volume, acidity, & electrolytes
3. regulates extracellular fluids of the body and the absorption of Ca+ ions by activating vitamin D.
4. secretes the hormone erythropoietin (controls rate of RBC formation), & the hormone renin (which regulates BP).
What does the hormone renin do?
What does the hormone erythropoietin do?
renin: regulates blood pressure
erythro: controls the rate of RBS formation
What 4 structures does the urinary system consist of?
1. kidneys
2. ureters
3. urinary bladder
4. urethra
*What is the meaning of "retroperitoneal space" in terms of anatomical location?
*What is located in the retroperitoneal space just above the waistline in the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity?
*Means: behind the peritoneal cavity
*Located there?: the kidneys
Name & describe the 3 main sections of the kidneys:
1. cortex (outer part)
2. medulla (middle area)
3. renal pelvis (hollow inner area)
What is the functional unit of the kidney? Approximately how many are in each kidney?
*(microscopic) NEPHRON *approx. 1 million
What is the function of the NEPHRON?
filter waste substances from the blood & simultaneously maintain the essential water & electrolyte balance of the body.
Name the 2 structural components of the nephron?
1. renal corpuscle
2. renal tubules
Name & describe the 2 structures of the renal corpuscle (of the nephron):
1. glomerulus (made of up of tangles blood capillaries in which the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries pushes substances thru the capillary pores)
2. glomerular (Bowman's) capsule (a cup-shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus, where this filtered substance, called "glomerular filtrate," is collected)
Describe renal tubules:
composed of proximal convoluted tubules, the nephron loops (loop of Henle), and distal convoluted tubes. Glomerular filtrate flows thru these tubules & undergoes changes in composition.
What are the 2 slender, muscular tubes 10-12 in. long that carry the urine formed in the kidneys to the urinary bladder?
ureters
What is the hollow muscular organ that holds the urine until it is expelled by a process called micturition (aka voiding OR urination) ?
urinary bladder
what is the tube that carries urine to the outside of the body?
urethra
how long is a woman's urethra vs. a man's urethra?
woman: 1.5 in
man: 8 in
What is the name for the opening at the end of the urethra, where the urine is expelled?
urethral meatus
Urine is formed in the nephrons of the kidneys by way of 3 mechanisms:
1. filtration
2. reabsorption
3. secretion
What is filtration?
process by which fluids & dissolved substances (ie: water, salts, sugar, nitrogen waste products) in the blood are forced thru the pores of the glomerulus in to the glomerular capsule by hydrostatic pressure. (substances such as RBCs & proteins remain in the blood bcuz they are too large)
List 3 examples of nitrogen waste products:
1. urea
2. creatinine
3. uric acid
What are elements or compounds that form positive or negatively charged ions that, when dissolved, can conduct electricity?
electrolytes
What is the process when some of the substances (ie: water, glucose, electrolytes) that flow thru the renal tubules that are needed by the body cross back in to the blood by the peritubular capillaries surrounding the tubules.
reabsorption
when blood levels of a substance such as glucose reach a point at which no more can be absorbed, the substance is excreted in the urine... this is the _______________ for that particular substance.
renal threshold level
What is the renal threshold level for glucose?
160-180mg/dL
What is the process in the formation of urine in which substances are transported from the peritubular blood capillaries into the renal tubules?
secretion
*(examples of substances secreted into the urine: metabolized drugs, potassium, hydrogen ions)
Main structures involved in the formation and excretion of urine, in sequence:
1. bloodstream--renal afferent arterioles
2.glomerulus
3. glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
4. Renal tubules
5. Collecting ducts
6. Renal pelvis
7. Ureter
8. Urinary bladder
9. Urethra
10. Urinary meatus-- urine is expelled
Water makes up ___% of urine.
95
*urine also contains nitrogen waste products derived from the breakdown of protein. Ie:
*urine also contains __________ as a waste product of muscle metabolism.
*urea, uric acid, & ammonia
*creatinine
Approx. daily output of urine:
1200-1500ml
Decreased urine volume:
oliguria
Oliguria can occur in the following situations:
-decreased fluid intake
-vomiting
-profuse sweating
-diarrhea
-kidney disease
Increase in the volume of urine output:
diuresis
Diuresis can be caused by the following:
-intake of excessive amts of fluids, especially caffeine
-some drugs, such as diuretics
-some types of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, & renal diseases that prevent the kidney form concentrating the urine
1. No flow of urine:
2. Painful urine:
3. Excessive urination at night
4. frequently passing abnormally large amts of urine
1. anuria
2. dysuria
3. nocturia
4. polyuria
The specimen container must be correctly labeled with the:
-pt name
-collection date &time
-type of specimen
***do not label the lid
If a specimen MUST be collected while a woman is menstruating (avoid if possible), what must be done?
The requisition must note that the pt is menstruating
Urine should be tested as soon as possible. if it will sit for more than 1 hr, it must be ___________ or ____________.
*refrigerated
*preservatives added
The method of collection is dictated by the ____________.
type of test ordered
documentation of the method used should be noted on3 different items:
1- specimen container
2- lab requisition
3- pt's chart
Random specimen should be collected __________.
midstream
Why is the pt instructed to void a small amt of urine into the toilet before starting collection into container?
To flush the area around the urinary opening of contaminants and to get a steady midstream flow
How many mL are typically required for most urine specimen collections?
25-50mL
Why is the first morning specimen usually the specimen of choice?
Bcuz it is the most concentrated and has the greatest amt of dissolved substances.
(the more concentrated, the higher the probability of detecting abnormalities, & the microscopic elements remain intact longer)
In catheterization, a ________ tube called a catheter is passed through the ________ into the bladder to remove urine.
*sterile
*urethra
With _______ ________, urine is removed by passing a needle through the abdominal wall into the bladder.
suprapubic aspiration
Collecting all the urine produced over a 24-hour period allows greater ________ of measurement for urinary components.
accuracy
What type of collection technique/ specimen is used in the diagnosis of the cause, control, & prevention of kidney stones?
24-Hour urine specimen