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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the formula for test sensitivity?
TP/(TP+FN) = Sensitivity
What is the formula for test specificity?
TN/(TN+FP) = Specificity
How is the normal range for lab values normall calculated?
Two standard deviations above and below the mean.
What is the frequency that a test will come up abnormal in multiple tests?
[1 - (.95)^n]
What is the major metabolic product that contributes to acidosis?
β-hydroxybutyric acid
Why are fatty acids elevated in a diabetic (type 1)?
Insulin is very lipogenic and inhibits lipolysis (net increased storage of fat). Decreased insulin would reverse these processes.
What is the cause of hyponatremia in this diabetic patient?
When the blood is hyperosmolar due to hyperglycemia this is going to leach interstitial fluid into the circulation. This interstitial fluid is low on Na, so the Na is initially diluted in the blood.
What is the formula for the decrease in serum Na in diabetics?
Formula: serum Na falls 1.6mmol/L for every 100mg/dL increase in plasma glucose.
Why is K high?
Acidosis increases K because of the high amount of H ions which displace K out of the cell (causes cells to be somewhat depleted in K). The body tissues are actually deprived of K in this instance, even though serum K is elevated.
Why is Cl low?
Cl is low/normal because of the Cl shift into the cells in exchange for bicarb out of the cell in response to acidosis.
Why is BUN increased in Type 1 diabetes in a keto-acidosis presentation?
Protein metabolism to provide energy for the starving cells in addition to the fat metabolism.
How high does the blood glucose level have to be to induce DKA?
Type 1: 300
Type 2 1000
What is the osmolar gap and why is it useful?
Osmolar gap is the difference between the measured serum osmolality and calculated serum osmolality.
What is the formula for calculating osmolality?
Calculated Osmolality = {2xNa +(urea + glucose)}
What five factors are used in calculating the osmolar gap?
Na, Cl, urea, bicarb., and glucose. Cl + bicarb = Na so you can just say 2 x Na.
What is considered a significant osmolar gap?
Anything more than 10.
The osmolar gap is very useful in the detection of poisonings of what nature?
Acetone, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, ethanol, and methanol.
What is anion gap?
Difference in total anions and cations.
What is the most common cause of anion gap?