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103 Cards in this Set

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Annelids evolved when and during what period
570 mya
Cambrian period
Annelids evolved from what
Acoelomate Flatworm
Coelom evolved from what
Polychaeta are
Oligochaeta are
Hirudinea are
Membrane inside annelida
Skin of annelida
Cutuicle; tough skin
Annelida: Nervous system
Brain (couple of big ganglia)
Two ventral nerve cords
Pair of ganglia in each segment
Clumps of nervous tissue
First fleshy lobe of the head lying in front of the mouth
Has sensory organs
Clamworm: Digestive system
Esophageal Caecum (secretes enzymes and inc surface area for digestion)
Stomach/Intestine (Digestion and absorption)
Clamworm: Circulatory System
Dorsal Blood Vessel (Blood flows anteriorly, above dig. tract)
Ventral Blood Vessel (Blood flows posteriorly, below dig. tract)
Lateral Vessels (Connect dorsal and ventral vessels)
Clamworm: Nervous System
Dorsal Ganglion (Bilobed structure that coordinates nervous fxn; in prostomium; the brain)
Ventral Nerve Cord (Carries nerve impulses back and forth from the brain through the length of the worm
Clamworm: Excretory System
Clamworm: Reproductive System
Located in each segment
Gonochoristic (both male/female)
Reproduce sexually
Breeding occurs when gametes released into water
Sci. name for earthworm
Lumbricus terrestris
Swollen glandular area that secretes slimy material to form cover for eggs (earthworm)
Earthworm: Digestive System
Crop (storage chamber)
Gizzard (Grinds food)
Intestine (Digestion and absorption)
Earthworm: Gas Exchange
No special gills or lungs
Diffusion mainly
Earthworm: Excretory
What are principle extretory products
Ammonia and urea
Earthworm: Nervous System
Suprapharyngeal ganglion (Mass of nerve cells above the pharynx and connected by nerve chords and subpharygal ganglion
Ventral Nerve Cord (transmits nerve impulses to and from the brain; beneath digestive tract)
Segmental ganglia (Small masses of nerve cells in each segment which coordinate activities in each segment)
List six characterisitics of the Phylum Annelida.
Hydrostatic skeleton of coelomic fluid
Straight digestive tract
Closed circulatory system
Segmented nervous system
Seg, skel, skin, digest, circ, nerv
Describe the external features of the Clamworm
Antennae - touch and taste
Mouth - under prostomium
Parapodia - gas exchange
Chaetae - bristles on parapodia, locomotion
Cuticle - skin
Somites - body segments
Cirri - organs of touch near anus
What serves as gills in polychaeta?
What is the difference between the nerve cords in vertebrates and invertebrates?
Invertebrates have ventral nerve cords
Vertebrates have dorsal nerve cords
What do oligochaeta do for the soil that is important?
Aerate the soil and break down organic matter.
What kind of feeders are polychaetes
Predators, herbivores, or scavengers
What kind of feeders are polychaetes
Earthworm: External Features
Clitellum - Swollen glandular area that secretes a slimy material to form a cover for the eggs during reproduction
Earthworm: Circulatory System
Dorsal Blood Vessel - Major vessel; carries blood anteriorly
Ventral Blood Vessel - Blood posteriorly
Lateral Vessels - Supply each segment with blood; connect dorsal and ventral vessels
Pseudohearst - 5 pairs of lateral blood vessels specialized to pump the blood
Earthworm: Reproductive System
Two pairs of testes
One pair of ovaries
Sperm and eggs released via genital pores
Two worms fertilize each other via semila vesicles; produce mucus sheath around eggs
What were the first animals specialized for land?
400 MYA
Arthropods eveloved from what Class?
What simliaries do they show?
Placement of appendages
Basic plan of nervous system
First land arthropods were early relatives of what ?
What are 7 general characterisitcis of Arthropoda?
Jointed appendages
Regional specialization
Chitinous exoskeleton
Open circulatory system
Segmented nervous system
Sexual Dimorphism
What do crayfish eat?
Small freshwater organisms
What are the sections of the crayfish called?
Cephalothorax and Abdomen
Crayfish: External Structures
Carapace - hard shell covering exterior of cephalothorax
Cervical groove - separates dorsal and ventral srufaces
Telson - central flap on tail
Uropods - side flaps on tail
Antennae - sensory organs for taste and touch (big)
Antennules - smaller sensory organs for taste and touch
Eyes - compound
Opening of green glands - pores through which urine is excreted
Mandibles - sturdy jaws surrounding mouth
Maxillae - small, feathery appendages that manipulate food, cover mandibles
Maxillipeds - large appendages that manipulate food
Chilipeds - claws for feeding and fighting
Walking Legs - 4 legs for locomotion
Swimmerets - 5 appendages aid in respiration and reproduction
Anal opening -
Crayfish: Digestive System
Cardiac Stomach - grind food, has calcified teeth
Pyloric stomach - digestion
Intestine - absorption
Digestive gland - secretes enzymes and abosrbs food (takes up majority of body cavity)
Crayfish: Gas Exchange
Crayfish: Circulatory System
Heart - pumps blood; dorsally in cephalothorax
Crayfish: Musculoskeletal System
Mandibular Muscle - Controls mandible
Crayfish: Excretory System
Green glands - secrete urine as ammonia
Crayfish: Nervous System
Supraesophagel Ganglion - "brain"
Subesophageal Ganglion - Coordinating center for mouth, esophagus, green glands, and anterior muscles
Ventral Nerve Cord - Transmits posteriorly
Segmental Ganglia - each segment, transmit nerve impulses from nerve cord
Crayfish: Reproductive System
Gonads - produce gametes, anterior and slightly below heart
Grasshopper: External Features (Head)
Antennae - sensory for taste, smell, touch
Compound Eyes
Ocelli - 3 simple eyes
Mandibles - jaws on lateral side of head
Clypeus - protective structure over mouth
Labrum - upper lip hinged to clypeus for eating
Maxillae - Manipulate food
Sensory palps - feel and taste food
Grasshopper: External Features (thorax and abdomen)
Walking legs - 6
Wings - 2 pair
Spiracles - gas exchange
Tympanum - Ear drum (1st segment of Abdomen)
Ovipostor - lay eggs (males don't have)
Grasshopper: Digestive System
Crop (store)
Stomach - digestion
Gastric Caeca - 6 double finger-shaped pouches connecting to gut after crop; secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs food
Intestine - absorption
Grasshopper: Gas Exchange System
Through tracheae
Air enters through spiracles and passes through the tracheas directly to body cells
Blood does not carry CO2 or O2
Grasshopper: Excretory System
Main waste is uric acid; removed by:
Malpighian Tubules - remove waste from body fluids and empty into digestive tract
Grasshopper: Circulatory System
Heart - tubular organ for pumping blood posterior to anterior
Perivisceral Sinus - space around organs where colorless blood bathes tissues; blood is sucked back into heart through ostia
Grasshopper: Nervous System
Supraesophageal ganglia - "brain", to eyes, antennae, and head
Subesophageal ganglia - to mouth
Ventral nerve cord - extends form above ganglia
Segmental Ganglia
Grasshopper: Reproductive system Female
Ovary - egg producing
Oviduct - carry eggs from ovary to vagina
Spermatheca (Seminal vesicle) - sac attached to vagina which recieves sperm and stores
Vagina - Chamber accepts penis
Ovipositor - lay eggs
Grasshopper: Reproductive system Male
Testes - sperm producing, above intestine
Vas deferens - carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicle
Seminal vesicle - store sperm
Ejaculatory duct - Tube from seminal vesicles and carrying sperm to penis
Penis - reproductive organ
Trilobites common during what era?
Cambrian and ordovician
State fossil of NYS
Eurypterus remipes
Why are mollusks important to neurophysiology?
Discovery of magnetic sense in a smail with giant neurons has provided clues about the cellular mechanisms underlying magnetic field detection
Mollusks share a common ancestor with what?
Polychaete annelids
Mollusca: General Characteristics
Shell - made of calcium carbonate; provides protection from predators
Soft-bodied (boneless)
Four bodily divisions
-Visceral Mass
Mollusk shell recycled how
What are the body divisions of Insecta in order
Describe the Four bodily divisions of Mollusca
Head - brain, sense organs
Mantle - lining of the body wall; covers organs; produces calcium carbonate of shell
Visceral Mass (digestive, excretory, circulatory, reproductive organs)
Foot - muscular, locomotion; important for classification of mollusks into different classes
Describe the Visceral Mass in detail
Digestive - complete, ciliated cells
Circulatory - chambered heart has ventricle(pump blood out of heart) and one or two atria(recieve blood); open except cephalopods
Reproduction - Gonochoristic
Respiration - Aquatic(gills) & Land (lungs)
Nervous system - ganglia in head food and visceral mass
Simplest Mollusks?
Chiton: External Features
Shell - Calcium carbonate w/ 8 plates(valves); Cephalic(1st) Anal(last) plates
Head - ventral mouth surrounded by labial palp; houses radula; no eyes
Mantle - fleshy skin secretes shell
Girdle - heavy mantle tissue surrounding eight plates
Gills - in pallial groove between mantle and foot; diffuse cases; capture food particles
Foot - entire lower surface
Chiton: Digestive
Radula - tongue scape algae off rocks
Esophagus - mouth to stomach
Stomach - digestion
Digestive gland - "liver", adds enzymes
Intestine - digestion, absorption; posterior intestine undigested waste mixed w/ musucs into fecal pellets
Chiton: Excretory
Kidneys (Nephridia) - 2 near heart
Chiton: Circulatory
Chiton: Gas Exchange
Heart - 2 auricles, pass into ventricle
Water drawn into pallial groove
Gills - feathery structures dangle into water from pallial groove
Chiton: Nervous System
4 ventral nerve cords
Sense organs - no eyes or tentacles
Mantle is sensitive to touch chemicals and light
Chiton: Reproductive system
Gonad - single large gonad, release into water
What are the second largest group of mollusks?
Pelecypoda have how many shells?
Therefore they are called what?
2 shells; bivalves
What kind of feeders are Pelecypoda?
They lack what?
Lack a radula
Sedentary Pelecypods cling via what...
Byssal threads
Clam: External Features
Shell - 2 halves (valves); three layers (tough outer layer, middle layer of ca co3, inner layer of nacre or mother-of-pearl(calcium oxide)
Hinge - unite valves
Umbo - dome elevation, oldest part
Growth rings - represent period of rapid growth
Clam: General Internal
Head - poorly developed; lacks distinct eyes or tentacles
Mantle - fleshy skin inside shell; secrete Ca CO3; bilobed
Adductor muscles - control opening and closing
Clam: Digestive
Mouth - just behind anterior adductor muslce and between two labial palps
Labial palps - soft fleshy flaps that bring food into mouth
Esophagus - lead from mouth to stomach
Stomach - Enzymes released
Liver - 2 digest. glands into stomach; secrete enzymes and absorb food
Intestine - secrete enzymes and absorb food
Rectum - fecal pellets formed
Clam: Excretory
Kidney - 2 tublular kidneys; filter fluids form around heart and excrete urine
Clam: Gas Exchange
Incurrent siphon - ventral surface; water enters
Excurrent siphon - dorsal surface, water leaves
Gills - 2 feather respiratory structures, covered w/ ciliated cells
Clam: Circulatory
Heart - 2 auricles & 1 ventricle. Auricle recieve lood form gill and mantle -> ventricle -> body
Ventricle folded around rectum
Clam: Nervous System and Sense Organs
Sense Organs - light sensitive cells along mantle and siphon, touch and tatse receptors, balance orgnas (statocysts)
Three pair of ganglia
Clam: Reproductive
Gonads - 2 in each clam(M or F)
What are statocysts?
Balance organs in Mollusks
Largest class of Mollusca are?
Snail shell..
Snail: External
Shell - Ca CO3; twisting of the body and shell is called torsion
Foot - attached to head, mucous glands to assist in locomotion
Tentacles - 2 pairs (touch, taste, olfactory)
Eyes - tip of tentacles
Snail: Internal General
Mantle - External coiled shell
Visceral Mass - Containing internal organs
Snail: Digestive
Mouth - food moved by cilia
Pharynx - Dorsal horny "jaw" and ventral radula
Radula - tounge used to scrape food off rocks
Crop - chamber
Stomach - digestion
Liver - High in the shell; digest juicees and absorb food
Intestine - dig. and absorption
Snail: Excretory
Kidney - "nephridium"; apex of shell; surrounds heart and drains fluid from pericardial cavity
Snail: Respiratory
Lung - Chamber formed by mantle cavity; ventilation when walls of mantle expand and contract; air leaves via pneumostome
Snail: Nervous and sense organs
pairs of ganglia
Eyes - cornea and lense (rhabdomeric eye)
Tentacles - touch, taste, olfactory, statocysts
Snail: Reproductive
Ovotestes - produce eggs and sperm, apex
Albumen gland - nourishment for eggs
Oviduct - carries eggs to vagina
Vas deferns - parallel to oviduct; sperm passes to penis
Dart sac - secretes calcium spicules; creats darts which help in stimulation
Squid feeding
Predaceous; eaten by sperm whale
Importance of Squid...
Largest nerve fibers, used to develop safer anesthetics and drugs for neruological disorders
Jet Propulsion
Pumps sea water into mantle which becomes inflated. then mantle contracts and water is ejected through sipon which can be swiveled to change direction.
Squid: External
Mantle: skin, highly muscularized
Chromatophores: Dark spots, pigment cells, allow squid to change color instantly(used predator/prey, courtship, and agression)
Head: Jaws, beak and radula
Eye: Example of convergent evolution, camera-like lens
Siphon: Extension of mantle cavity
Foot: "head footed", head is by teh foot. Foot is circle of 8 arms and 2 tentacles w/ suckers
Fins: Used for swimming
Squid: General Internal
Pen: translucent, flexible, blade of supporting tissue along back of the squid; composed of chitin; vestigal
Ink sac: above rectum; smoke screen to confuse predators
Squid: Digestive
Mouth: Sharp jaws, beak, radula
Stomach: preliminary digestion
Caecum: Food absorption, digestive side chamber
Liver: Multi-chambered organ produce digestive enzymes
Intestine: Elimination of wastes
Squid: Excretory
Kidney: Nephridium, drains fluids form pericardial chamber and forms urine
Squid: Circulatory
Closed unlike other mollusks
Heart: Contractile organ pumping blood; 2 atria drain blood form gills and pass to ventricle
Gill Hearts: 2 acessory hearts just b4 2 glls
Squid: Respiratory
Gills (Ctenidia): 2 feather gills
Squid: Nervous and Sense
Nervous system most complex of all invertebrates
Brain: Encircle esophagus
Squid: Reproductive
Gonad: One organ in posterior of body
Male: sac like testes pass sperm via vas deferens, this joins seminal vesicle where sperm are rolled into a mass called spermatophore
Females: single sac-like ovary in posterior of body; oviduct carries eggs to mantle where they appear in strings and are fertilized