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66 Cards in this Set

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Definition of a lab animal
Any animal used for obtaining information that is usually applied to a different species.
What is the ASPCA?
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals formed in 1866 ~the same time animal research expanded.
What is the HSUS?
Humane Society of the United States -formed in 1954, recognizes the need for animals in research but lobbies for humane treatment and restraint in unnecessary use of animals.
What is the AALAS?
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (1950). Concerned with the production, care and study of lab animals. Contains the Animal Technician Certification Board.
What does the ATCB (Animal Technician Certification Board) do?
It develops uniform standard of laboratory animal technician training, they certify and educate aspiring technicians.
What is the ILAR?
The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, it coordinates and disseminates information of the humane care and standard of lab animal use.
What is the AAALAC?
The American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Care which establishes standard and regulations for labs that do research and also runs a program of accreditation of laboratory facilities and animal care.
What does the Animal Welfare Act regulate?
Interstate transport of animals for personal and biochemical use. Care of animals in zoos, circuses, carnivals and exhibitions. Housing and minimum care requirements for any animal professionally cared for. Minimum care requirements. Record keeping.
What is the animal "model"?
The animal used in research is selected for its similarities (physical/behavioral) to the species the research is being applied to. Look for similarities between species.
What are the four criteria to evaluate when selecting an animal model?
Similar characteristics. Size (smaller is better). Productivity (easy to reproduce the animal). Longevity (life span needs to be considered for long-term studies).
What is genetics?
Biological science dealing with heredity.
What is heredity?
The transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
What's the minimum number of generations needed to produce genetically pure (99.8%) animals?
20 generations of consecutive brother-sister or parent-offspring mating.
What is a hybrid?
The first generation from crossing 2 different inbred strains.
What are some characteristics of a mutant?
Usually a poor dooer, poor breeder, prone to other diseases, expensive.
What is gnotobiology?
The biological science dealing with producing and maintaining animals with known microorganisms in a controlled environment.
Why do we use gnotobiology?
It provides guaranteed disease-free animals for research. Defines are microorganisms present in an animal.
What is Specific Pathogen Free (SPF)?
Not germ free, but there is a list of pathogens that we do not want them to have. They need to be housed separately so they can't contract the pathogen.
What is a metabolic cage?
It collects and separates urine and feces for measuring and studying.
What are 5 factors to consider when designing a facility?
Temperature. Ventilation. Lighting. Noises. Bedding.
What are different ways of identifying animals?
Nail polish, ear punctures, amputation of toes (mice), tattoos, microchips, banding, collars, cards of the box/cage.
What are mice used for?
pets, vaccine challenge, infectious disease studies, transplant studies (skin transplants most common).
What type of ovulators are mice?
Spontaneous
What is barbering?
Fur chewing. The dominant mouse nibbles on the whiskers and facial hair of cage-mate.
What are two zoonotic mice diseases?
Tyzzer's (spore-forming bacteria can live up to 1yr in environment - pregnant women) and Hanta virus (white footed mouse - urine and feces).
What are some signs of intestinal parasites?
Weight loss, inactivity, constipation, excessive licking and chewing of the rectal area or base of tail.
What is the Sendai virus?
It's an acute respiratory infection. neonate & weanlings may die - adults recover w/in 2 mths. They have mild respiratory distress, chattering (raspy breathing).
Average weights.
Mice - 20-40 grams
Rats - 300-500 grams
Guinea pigs - 2 lbs
Hamsters - 85-150 grams
Gerbils - 80-120 grams
What is copraphagic?
Eating their own feces, usually to obtain vitamins.
Why don't you fast most lab animals?
They have extremely fast heart rates.
What is a malocclusion?
Where their teeth are not hitting each other correctly.
What is ringtail?
Constrictions & edema on the tail, necrosis will eventually occur. It's caused by humidity levels less than 25-50% in the housing area.
What is chromodacryorrhea (red tears)?
Secretions from eyes that turn red on contact with air. Often seen in old rats and can be a sign of pain, stress or upper respiratory infection.
What is one of the most allergenic lab animals?
Guinea pigs.
What vitamin can guinea pigs not manufacture themselves?
Vitamin C - must supply 25mgs/day or they can develop scurvie.
When should you breed a guinea pig?
Before 10 months, because their pelvic bone will fuse together.
Should you fast a guinea pig before anesthesia?
Yes, 2-4 hours beforehand - due to gastric reflux. They tend to hold their breath under gas anesthesia.
What are the ways to administer drugs to a mouse?
SQ, IM, IP, IV, Oral, Intraosseous
What are the most common internal parasites of mice?
Tapeworm and pinworm
Where can you bleed a mouse or rat?
Tail, cardiac puncture(terminal), orbital sinus, vena cave (large volume), saphenous
What is ad libidum?
Free choice
What is a rat missing? (organ)
gall bladder
Characteristics of a rat.
no gall bladder, albino fur turns yellow w/ aging & teeth get yellow/brown, unable to vomit, sensitive retinas, very acute hearing.
What are male, female and baby guinea pigs called?
boars, sows, young or pups
Should you keep male guinea pigs together?
No, they will fight.
What's unusual about a baby guinea pig?
They are born fully furred (miniature adults) and are very precocious (eyes are open). Can be weaned as early as 1 week.
What will usually happen to a sick/stressed guinea pig?
They will dies, they are very delicate.
Where can you bleed a guinea pig?
Nail clip (painful), cardiac puncture, jugular, cephalic, saphenous, vena cava.
What is antibiotic toxicity and which animals are susceptible to it?
The intestinal flora is Gram + bacteria and some antibiotics kill gram+ flora - leaving only gram- which leads to fatal enteritis and septicemia. Guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils.
What diseases can affect guinea pigs?
Antibiotic toxicity, bacterial pneumonia, septicemia, bite wounds (abscesses), crypto (*zoonotic), fleas, mites, lice, lymphadenitis (Lumps).
What problems can occur with a pregnant guinea pig?
Heat stroke (v.sensitive to heat), dystocia (over 10 mths, or obese pigs).
What is the flank gland on a hamster?
Dark brown patches bilaterally along the back, more prominent in mature males. Secretions are used for territorial marking and mating.
What do you need to be concerned about when restraining a hamster?
They will bite, they can turn around easily and bit you.
What is pseudohibernation?
Low temps and decreased light can make an animal enter a deep sleep. It can last minutes to 7 days. *you cannot rouse an animal in true hibernation!
What animal goes into pseudohibernation?
hamsters
What can cause alopecia in a hamster?
Low protein deficiencies.
What can help decrease the chance of cannibalism is pregnant female hamsters?
Supplement apples and lettuce before delivery. Give mom 7-10 days worth of food, water & bedding 13 days post mating, don't handle young before 7 days old or change cages.
How do you bleed hamsters?
Small cut in footpad, orbital sinus, vena cava, cardiac puncture (terminal).
What antibiotic should you not give to a hamster?
Streptomyacin. They have antibiotic toxicity.
What internal parasites can hamsters get?
Hymenolepis nana (*zoonotic tapeworm), giardia, pinworms.
What is wet tail and who gets it?
"Transmissible ileal hyperplasi", caused by bacteria which causes their tail to be wet with an ulcerated perianal area. They will usually die w/in a few days. Hamsters.
What are some unusual characteristics of gerbils?
They have a very high heat tolerance, very efficient water conserving capacity(cages stay cleaner-not as smelly), yellow-tan midventral scent gland.
How should you pick up a hamster?
Scruff them. *don't pick up by the tail you can slough the tail off.
What's unusual about gerbil mating?
They form monogamous pairs, if one dies they won't remate! Males become sterile if not paired at puberty.
What is bald nose?
The harderian glands of the eyes secrete a porphyrin which can cause irritation if not removed by grooming-leads to infection and balding. Stress, overcrowding and low humidity levels can cause it.
Who gets bald nose?
gerbils