• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

### 36 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 What is the REO2? Respiratory Equivalent for O2 What is the normal resting REO2 and that at moderate exercise? 20:1 -For every 1 L/min increase in oxygen consumption, total ventilation has to increase by 20L/min What happens to the REO2 at severe exercise levels? It increases to more like 25:1 Why does the REO2 increase at severe exercise levels? Due to an increase in lactate buffering which gives a CO2 byproduct. That requires increased ventilation to blow off the CO2 Why doesn't O2 consumption continue to increase as the ventilation increases? Because O2 consumption is limited by the heart rate and cardiac output - it is already at O2 Vmax So what is the normal resting -Ve (total) -VO2 (oxygen consumption) -VEo2 Ve = 6 L/min VO2 = .25L/min VEo2 = 24 (unitless) What is the normal resting -Ve (total) -VCO2 (CO2 production) -VECo2 Ve = 6 L/min VCO2 = 0.2 L/min VECO2 = 30 Why is the normal O2 consumption higher than CO2 production? Because on our diet the normal respiratory quotient is 0.8 (0.8 = 0.2/0.25) So what is the strenuous Exercising -Ve (total) -VO2 (oxygen consumption) -VEo2 -Ve = 100 -VO2 = 4 -VEo2 = 25 How much does VCO2 increase during exercise? So what is the VECo2 during strenuous exercise? VCO2 = 3.47 29 In general how do the VEO2 and VECO2 compare at rest? The VECO2 is higher than VEo2 Normal value for VEo2 Normal value for VECO2 VEO2 = 26 +/- 4 VECO2 = 29 +/- 4 What happens to the difference in VEO2 and VECO2 -At the anaerobic threshold -Beyone the AT AT it they are equal BEYOND it the VECO2 is LOWER than the VEO2 What is the MET? Metabolic equivalent What is the MET used for? Estimating the metabolic cost of physical activity What does 1 MET refer to? 3.5 ml of O2 uptake/min/kg When would you be using 1 MET? 4 METS 6 METS? 8 METS? 12-18 METS? At rest Housework/bowling Farming/tennis heavy manual labor/skiing hocky/rowing/swimming How is METS calculated? VO2/weight (kg) ------------- 3.5 ml/min/kg So for a person with an oxygen ventilation of 4 L/min and a weight of 80 kG what is their METS? 14.3 (unitless) How is oxygen pulse calculated? VO2/HR For a person with a VO2 of 4 L/min and a heart rate of 165 what is their O2 pulse? 24 ml O2/beat What is the normal o2 pulse -male -female Male = 12 ml O2/beat Female = 10 ml O2/beat What are 3 subjective ways to evaluate whether an exercise stress test was maximal or submaximal? -Chest pain -Fatigue -Shortness of breath What are 4 objective ways to determine if the test was maximal? -Heart rate -RQ (greater than 1) -Lactate levels -Bicarb levels How much will lactate and bicarb change if the test was maximal? 4 mEq/L above normal Lactate 4 mEq/L below normal Bicarb How are the "normals" for lactate and bicarb determined? Whatever it was before exercise When will the AT be reached in -A normal sedentary person -A trained athlete Sedentary - at 4-6X resting O2 consumption Trained athlete - at 10-12X resting O2 consumption Does the exercise stress test done in a pulmonary lab normally reach maximum? No - its generally submaximal What is the purpose of an exercise stress test investigating a limitation?? To determine if its due to -Pulmonary problems -Cardiac problems -Deconditioning -Poor effort What would be a pulmonary limitation? -Restrictive/obstructive impairments -Gas exchange defects -Neuromuscular disease -Thoracic cage deformity What would be a cardiovascular limitation? -CAD -Anemia -HTN -Arrythmia What is the Breathing reserve? The maximum predicted min ventilation - actual Ve reached What is the A-a O2 gradient? The Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient What are 3 ways to evaluate a Ventilatory limitation? Ve only 70-80% max Breathing freq <55-60 Breathing reserve of 20-30% What are 3 ways to determine a Cardiovascular limitation? -ECG -Blood pressure response -O2 pulse should be >10 ml O2/beat What are 3 ways to determine a gas exchange limitation? -SaO2 (decrease should be <4%) -Pa O2 <10 mm Hg drop -A-gradient <35 mm Hg O2