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26 Cards in this Set

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How are organisms classified?
according to their sources of carbon
Which type of organisms use carbon dioxide as their only carbon source and include plants and some bacteria?
Autotrophs
Which type of organisms use organic carbon as their source of carbon and include all other living things with a few exceptions?
Heterotrophs
which use light energy?
phototrophs
which use energy released from oxidation of chemical compounds?
Chemotrophs
which oxidize inorganic compounds?
lithotrophs
which oxidize organic compounds?
organotrophs
Photolithotrophs or photoautotrophs (all plants and some bacteria) use __________ _________ in photosynthesis. Water is generally the source of this.
inorganic hydrogen
Photo-organotrophs or photoautotrophs (some bacteria) use _______ _________ in photosynthesis.
organic hydrogen
Chemolithotrophs or chemoautotrophs (chemosynthetic bacteria) synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide with energy obtained from __________/_________ of ________ compounds.
oxidation/reduction
inorganic
Chemoorganotrophs or chemoheterotrophs (animals, fungi and most bacteria) use energy released from _________/__________ of _______ compounds.
oxidation/reduction
organic
Microorganisms require at least 15 elements:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, and molydenum. All require water. Many require vitamins which function as coenzymes.
411311211
CHIMNOPSZ
Psychrophiles live best at
0 - 20 C
Mesophiles live best at
20 - 40C
Thermophiles live best at
50 - 60C
The optimum pH for most organisms is
6-8
_______ are added to control pH
buffers
Plasmoptysis
rupture of the membrane.
Hypotonic
usually less than .85% concentration. (Saline is .85%)
Isotonic
equal concentration inside and outside thee cell. Usually .85%.
Plasmolysis
membrane shrinks due to water flowing out of the cell.
Hypertonic
usually greater than .85% concentration.
Agar
nutrient broth (containing peptone and meat extract) and nutrient agar (nutrient broth solidified with agar).
enriched
Blood agar
select
Mannitol, BEA
differential
EMB, blood, HE