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35 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main arterial domains in the brain and what are their primary arteries?
1. Anterior circulation, supplied by the internal carotids
2. Posterior circulation, supplied by the veretbral arteries
What regions does the anterior circulation serve, and through what arteries?
*much of the brain
*anterior and middle cerebral arteries
What regions are served by the posterior circulation and through what arteries?
*brain stem, cerebellum, and some cerebrum
*vertebral, basilar, and posterior cerebral arteries
Why does a small lesion in the internal capsule have disproportionately large effects?
The capsule contains densely packed axons that connect cortical neurons.
Does blood typically exchange between sides of the circle of Willis? Why or why not?
No - equal blood pressure on both sides usually prevents this.
What three branches of the basilar artery supply the pons? What regions of the pons does each supply?
1. Paramedian: anterior
2. Short circumferential: lateral
3. Long circumferential: posterior (with AICA)
What two regions are supplied by penetrating branches of the PCA?
Thalamus and caudal hypothalamus
What region is supplied by collaterals from the vertebral, cerebellar, and basilar arteries?
Much of the brainstem.
The midbrain region is supplied by what artery?
The superior cerebellar.
What are the lenticulostriate arteries? From where do they arise? What region do they supply?
They are deep penetrating branches of the middle cerebral artery that supply the internal capsule of the cortex.
In general, what sections of the spinal cord are supplied by the posterior spinal arteries?
The dorsal columns and superficial dorsal horn.
Do the posterior spinal arteries descend medial or lateral to the dorsal roots?
They descend medial to the dorsal roots.
List the 3 major kinds of intracranial, extraparenchymal hemorrhage.
1. Epidural
2. Subdural
3. Subarachnoid
Where does bleeding occur in an epidural hemorrhage? What most often causes a bleed of this type?
*in the epidural space, between the skull and dura mater
*trauma to the head
Where does bleeding occur in a subdural hemorrhage? What is a common cause of this type of bleed?
*in the subdural space (between the dura and arachnoid maters)
*shearing forces that rupture bridging veins
Where does bleeding occur in a subarachnoid hemorrhage? How might this type of bleed be detected?
*in the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid and pia maters)
*via CSF tap
On average, how much CSF is produced in the brain each day? Where is it produced?
*500mL/day
*choroid plexus in the lateral and third ventricles
Where is CSF absorbed?
Into the saggital sinus via the arachnoid villi.
What is a normal value for CSF pressure?
11mmHg
Where is an LP commonly performed?
In the 3rd or 4th lumbar interspace.
T/F:
The CSF contains specialized macrophages involved in the immune protection of the brain and spinal cord.
False - the CSF is acellular.
Through what openings does CSF leave the brainstem to bath the spinal cord?
Median and lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle.
Describe the blood supply to the mid-medulla.
*vertebral arteries: anterior portion including olives and pyramids
*PICA: small dorsolateral wedge
Describe the blood supply to the caudal medulla.
*anterior: anterior spinal arteries
*lateral: vertebral arteries
*posterior: posterior spinal arteries
What are two functions of CSF?
1. Mechanical protection
2. Removal of metabolites
Describe 3 common herniations that occur in the brain.
1. Uncus through the tentorial membrane
2. Cingulate gyrus laterally beneath the falx cerebri
3. Cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum
What vessels supply the uncus? What effect would an infarct in this area have?
*Posterior cerebral arteries
*deficits in olfaction
Place the following structures in order from medial to lateral: internal capsule, insula, thalamus.
1. Thalamus
2. Internal capsule
3. Insula
Which artery supplies the pre- and postcentral gyri? Which artery supplies Broca's and Wernicke's areas?
The middle cerebral artery supplies all of these structures.
Describe the shape of the internal capsule.
It is v-shaped with an anterior limb, a genu, and a posterior limb.
Motor and sensory deficits to the legs and feet may be caused by a lesion in the paracentral lobule. What artery supplies this area?
Anterior cerebral.
The primary olfactory and primary visual cortices are both supplied by the same artery - what is it? Is this artery supplied by the internal carotids or the vertebral arteries?
*Posterior cerebral artery.
*vertebral arteries
Blood delivered by the spinal arteries comes from what two sources?
1. Vertebral arteries
2. Radicular arteries
Describe the blood flow of the dorsal horns. The ventral horns? The lateral horns?
*dorsal horns: posterior spinal
*ventral horns: anterior spinal
*lateral horns: anterior spinal
What keeps blood from passing from the venous sinuses into the CSF circulation in the subarachnoid space?
*CSF pressure is higher than venous pressure
*valves