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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three divisions of the Pelvis bone?
ILEUM
ISCHIUM
PUBIS
What runs through the OBTURATOR CANAL?
The Obturator VAN
What is another name for the INFERIOR PUBIC RAMUS?
The ISCHIAL-PUBIC RAMUS
What is the Anterior Boundary of the PERINEUM?
PUBIC SYMPHYSIS
What is the Anterolateral Boundary of the PERINEUM?
INFERIOR PUBIC RAMI
What is the Posterior Boundary of the PERINEUM?
Tip of the COCCYX
What is the Posterolateral Boundary of the PERINEUM?
SACROTUBEROUS LIGAMENT reinforced by GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
What two triangles may the PERINEUM be divided into?
Anteriorly: Urogenital
Posteriorly: Anal
What feature divides the PERINEUM into two triangles?
An imaginary line drawn between the two Ischial Tuberosities.
What are the roles of the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM?
1. Separate pelvic cavity from Perineum
2. Support Pelvic viscera
3. Sphincteric action at anorectal junction
4. Resist increased intraabdominal pressure (coughing/defacating)
What makes up the Pelvic Diaphragm?
Levator Ani: Puborectalis, Pubococcygeus, Iliococcygeus
(Ischio) Coccygeus
What is the band-like thickening on the fascia of obturator internus called?
ARCUS TENDINEUS (Tendinous Arch of Levator Ani)
What innervates the Pelvic Diaphragm?
Perineal branch of S4
Pudendal nerve (S2, S3, S4)
What is the correct name for the ISCHIORECTAL FOSSA?
ISCHIOANAL FOSSA
What is the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Wedge-shaped fat-filled regions lying between the skin of anal region & pelvic diaphragm
What is the base of the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Skin & Fascia
What is the apex of the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Meeting point of obturator internus & levator ani muscles
What forms the lateral wall of ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Inferior part of Obturator Internus and fascia along the Ischium.
What forms the Medial Wall of the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Anal Canal
External Anal Sphincter
Levator Ani Muscle
What forms the Anterior boundary of the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Urogenital Diaphragm
What forms the Posterior boundary of the ISCHIOANAL FOSSA?
Gluteus Maximus M.
What structure encloses the Pudendal nerves?
Pudendal (Alcock's) Canal

(Useful for blocking for regional anesthesia in obstetrical procedures)
Where are the anal sphincters found?
Internal Anal Sphincter = Upper 2/3 of Anal Canal
External Anal Sphincter = Lower 2/3 of Anal Canal

They Overlap.
What are the three parts of the EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER?
Subcutaneous -- no bony attachments

Superficial -- Attaches to coccyx & perineal body

Deep -- No bony attachments
What kind of inervation does the EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER exhibit?
Voluntary
What kind of inervation does the INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER exhibit?
Involuntary
Where does the INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER end?
White line of Hilton
What are the features of the superior 2/3 of the Anal Canal?
-Lined by Columnar Epithelium (Endodermal)
-Responsive to Stretch
-Anal Columns
-Adenocarcinomas
-Lymphatic: Internal & Common Iliac
What are the features of the Inferior 1/3 of the Anal Canal?
-Lined by Stratified Squamous Epithelium (Ectoderm)
-Somatic Innervation (Inferior rectal nerves)
-Responsive to Pain, Touch, Temp
-Squamous Cell Carcinoma
-Lymphatic: Superficial Inguinal Nodes
What are the features of Internal Hemorrhoids?
-Tributaries of Superior Rectal Vein (Portal System)
-Occur Above Pectinate Line (Painless)
-3, 7, 11 o'clock
What are the features of External Hemorrhoids?
-Inferior Rectal Veins (Systemic)
-Below Pectinate Line (Extremely Painful)
Where do most Fissure in Ano occur?
Posteriorly in the midline.