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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What comprises the parenchyma of the liver?
What surrounds the liver?
A capsule
What may hepatocytes often be?
What lies between hepatocyte cords?
What are sinusoids?
Vascular spaces lined by an endothelium of sinusoidal lining cells
What allows you to identify sinusoidal lining cells?
They are long and have flattened out basophilic nuclei
Are the endothelial cells lining sinusoids held together by tight junctions?
What cells do the nuclei that lie within the lumen of sinusoids belong to?
WBCs and sinusoidal macrophages
What is the special name for sinusoidal macrophages?
Kupffer cells
What do Kupffer cells originate from?
What is a function of kupffer cells?
To endocytose particles and cell debris.
What is the space between the sinusoids and hepatocytes?
The Perisinusoidal Space of Disse
What is the function of the space of disse?
To serve as an intermediate compartment facilitating the exchange of materials between hepatocytes and the blood.
What cells reside in the perisinusoidal space?
Ito cells
What 3 structures lie within the hepatoduodenal ligament?
-Hepatic artery proper
-Portal vein
-Common bile duct
What are the structures that make up the portal area?
BRANCHES of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct.
What is the biggest hole in a portal area?
The portal vein
What allows you to differentiate the hepatic artery branch from a bile duct?
Bile ducts don't have smooth muscle, or RBCs in their lumens.
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of a bile ductule?
Simple cuboidal
In the classic liver lobule, what does blood run into?
A central vein
What are the sources of the blood that dumps into a central vein?
-Portal vein blood
-Hepatic artery blood
What do central veins flow into?
Hepatic veins and ultimately the IVC
Are all areas of the liver equal with respect to metabolic activity?
No; there are different zones based on the type of blood flowing through them.
What do dark staining areas have lots of?
Glycogen granules (dark blue)
What do light staining areas have lots of?
Lipid droplets (pink staining and foamy)
What structures are present between hepatocytes at their apical sides?
Bile canaliculi
Do bile canaliculi have any discrete structure of their own?
No; they're formed by the plasma membranes of adjacent hepatocytes.
What types of intercellular junctions are found at the margins of the canalicular area of adjacent hepatocytes?
Tight junctions and Gap junctions
What are the exocrine functions of the liver?
Bile synthesis into the canaliculi, and excretion via the bile ducts.
In the liver lobule what direction does bile flow in?
From 3 peripheral central veins, to a central bile ductule.
What is the stroma of the liver parenchyma composed of?
What is reticulin made of?
Collagen type III
What cells secrete the collagen type III reticulin?
Ito cells
What is the progression of hepatic cirrhosis?
1. Ito cells transform into myofibroblasts, secrete ECM
2. Collagen type I and III are deposited too much
3. Fibrous bands become apparent
Why is it bad when fibrous bands deposit in the hepatic lobules?
Because sinusoids narrow and resistance to bloodflow increases.
What are the 3 normal functions of Ito CELLS?
1. Fat storage
2. Retinoid storage
3. Synthesis of reticulin
What would result from blockage of the perisinusoidal space?
1. Jaundice
2. Ascites
3. Liver failure
What is the gallbladder?
A blind-ended sac attached to the undersurface of the liver.
What covers the surface of the gallbladder that is attached to:
-the liver
Liver: adventitia
Free: serosa
What is adventitia?
The outermost connective tissue that surrounds an organ or vessel which is not covered by serosa.
What is Serosa?
The outermost covering of an organ that lies within the body cavity.
What is a serosa made of?
A simple squamous epithelium that secretes watery serous fluid
Why does a serosa secrete watery serous fluid?
To allow it to slide past other organs in the cavity without friction.
What causes the histological appearance of the gallbladder to vary?
Whether it was filled or empty at the time of prep.
What type of epithelium lines the surface of the gallbladder?
Simple columnar
What side of the gallbladder was the specimen for our lab obtained from?
From the side facing / attached to the liver.
How do you know?
Because the gallbladder wall blends with CT and is not covered by a serosa.
What structures facilitate the gallbladder's function to concentrate bile?
Microvilli - they help absorb water.
What hormone do enteroendocrine cells secrete when fat enters the duodenum? What does it do?
CCK - causes the gallbladder to contract.
On the trichrome stain of the gallbladder, what is olive green?
Smooth muscle
What is bright aqua?
When adipose tissue is present beyond the serosa, from what side of the gallbladder is that section from?
What does the pancreas look like, right off the bat? Why?
Parotid gland - because septations divide it into lobules.
How does it look different from the parotid?
There are fewer excretory ducts
What are the small pale splotches within the pancreas tissue?
Islets of langerhans
What are the structural functional units in the pancreatic exocrine tissue?
Acinar cells
Why is the basal cytoplasm of acinar cells basophilic?
Because it has lots of RER
Why is the apical cytoplasm of acinar cells eosinophilic?
Because it has secretory zymogen granules.
What is the principle product of the pancreatic acinar cells?
Digestive enzymes.
What are a diagnostic feature of the pancreas?
Centroacinar cells
What do centroacinar cells mark?
The beginning of the duct system
What ducts begin at centroacinar cells?
Intercalated ducts
What do cells of the intercalated ducts contribute to the exocrine secretions of the pancreas?
Water and Bicarb
What do intercalated ducts join to form?
Intralobular ducts
What do intralobular ducts join to form?
Interlobular ducts
Where are interlobular ducts found?
In connective tissue septations.
What do interlobular ducts join to form?
The main pancreatic duct
What type of duct is present in the parotid, but absent from pancreatic glands?
Striated ducts.