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83 Cards in this Set

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Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese, antagonist of exploration, early 1400s
motives of exploration
religious zeal, migration, new opportunities, Renaissance, curiosity, "gold, glory, God," spices, profit, trade routes to east
King John II
Portuguese king (1481-1495) established trading posts on Guinea coast – looking for gold, ivory, slaves
King Manuel
Portuguese king, finally reached Asia
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 treaty between Spain and Portugal, divided world in two, endorsed by Pope Alexander VI
Treaty of Alcacovas
1497 regarding Canary Islands, allowed Spain (Castile) to keep control of, endorsed by Pope Alexander VI
Keys to Portuguese success
naval power, no overseas settlements – knew limits, trading bases on coasts, restricted contact to missionary/trade, no efforts to subjugate, profitable as importers of luxury, later suppliers of slaves
Christopher Columbus
Italian, found land named for queen of Castile, reached Bahamas after 33 days during attempt to find westward route to Asia, went on to explore more of West Indies
Aztec Empire
in Mexico, most language/Gods/legend from Toltec’s; formed high civilization – Tenochitlan like Venice, Huichilopozli, Calpulli, Moctezuma, slaves, human sacrifices
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador, led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire to bring large portions of Mexico under the King of Castile in early 16th century
Panfilo de Narvaez
sent by Velazquez to Mexico in 1520 to oppose Cortez, failed when surprise attacked, many men joined Cortes in his conquest of Mexico
Inca Empire
modern day Peru, centered on Andean mountain ranges, (1438-1533), spoke Quechua, civil war during time of conquest
Vasco de Balboa
saw Pacific Ocean from explorations in Central America; “discovered” Pacific for Spain; rekindled notion of westward passage to East India
Diego Velazquez
Spanish conquistador, conquered and governed Cuba in 1511; founded Baracoa and then Santiago de Cuba and Havana; authorized expeditions to Yucatan
Unification of Spain
marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand, diverse society in language, landscapes, ethnicities – Catholicism only; Castile became language, 1492 finished Reconquest kicked out of Grenada
Torquemada
first Inquisitor General of Spain
Spanish Reconquest
800 year period beginning in Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims
Ferdinand II of Aragon
married Isabella I of Castile to become the Catholic Monarchs, united Spain
Limpieza de Sangre
pure blood; absence of Jewish or Muslim ancestors
Sedentary settlements in Americas
Aztecs, Incas, Mayans; civilization/state, stratification of society, separation of religious leaders from political
Olmecas
Tabasco river, developed calendar system, numerical system, large stone heads wearing helmets, dropped south into Guatemala, overtaken by Mayans
Mayan Empire
in Yucatan, pyramids, worship object shape of snake w/feathers, pictographic/ideograms as writing, sophisticated numeral system, developed urban centers, highly advanced – gave lot to Aztecs
Toltecs
city of Tula, Quezaltcoalt, Tezcatlipoca, first to produce written sources
Nahuatl
native tongue of Mexico/the Aztecs
Hernandez de Cordoba
1517 led expedition to Yucatan under Velazquez commission, met Mayans at Cape Catoche
Melchor and Julian
prisoners taken by Cordoba, served as translators
Juan de Grijalva
led second expedition to Yucatan, four ships sailed south along the coast of Yucatan to the Tabasco region
Geronimo de Aguilar
survivor of shipwreck of 1511, living among Mayans when found by Cortez, returned to Castilian brothers to serve as translator
Gonzalo Guerrero
second survivor of shipwreck, refused to return to Spanish
Dona Marina
Malinche; Aztec noble living among Mayans, served as translator for Cortez
La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz
settlement established by Cortez in attempts to redeem himself with Spanish crown; town council names him adelantado - strategy of Velazquez so isn't in defiance of governor of Cuba
Royal Fifth
the King of Spain claim to 20% of all spoils
Totonacs
tribe that helped Cortez build La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz; allied with Spanish like the Cempoalans
Tlaxcala
Cortez greatest ally, enemy of the Aztecs, confederacy of approx 20 towns, helped Spanish conquer Tenochtitlan
Cholula
city under Aztec influence, 2nd largest in Mesoamerica; Cortez and men and Tlaxcaltec marched on and slaughtered, inclined other cultures w/in Aztec empire to submit to Cortez
Francisco Montejo
member of Cortez's crew who went to Spain to seek royal acceptance of the cabildo of Villa Rica's declaration
Pedro de Alvarado
second in command on Cortez expedition, instigated attack of Templo Mayor
La Noche Triste
Spaniards' failed attempt to escape from Tenochtitlan after Moctezuma killed/attack of Templo - save skin; terrible losses for Spanish
Cuitlahuac
Aztec tlatoani while Moctezuma in Spanish captivity, led his people against the conquistadors
Quezaltcoalt
most important god of Toltecs, represented by serpent with feathers - cyclical idea of religion
Tezcatlipoca
other god of Toltecs, represented by smoking mirror meaning bad/evil; always threatening to punish, fatalistic
Chinampas
small garden tracts artificially formed in the lakes of the Valley of Mexico, growing corn etc
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec god of war, patron of the city of Tenochtitlan; build city where see an eagle perched on a cactus eating a serpent
Tenochtitlan
located on Lake Texcoco in the valley of Mexico, seat of Aztec empire in 15th century until captured by Spanish in 1521
Moctezuma
ninth tlatonai of Aztec empire, contradictory descriptions between arrogant emperor and humble servant of Quetzalcoatl
Battle of Otumba
after La Noche Triste, Aztec's attempt to destroy Spanish; S able to escape to Tlaxcala to recuperate and plan joint attack on Aztecs
Siege of Tenochtitlan
lasted 8 months, cut city off from food and water supplies, smallpox ravaged, Cuauhtemoc eventually surrendered to Cortez
Cuauhtemoc
last Aztec emperor
Calpulli
Indian clan in Mesoamerica, basic social and economic unit; organizational unit below the Altepetl "city-state"
Tatoani
Aztec chief/emperor/king
Antonio de Mendoza
first viceroy of New Spain
Casa de Concentracion
House of Trade; centralized, monopolized, regulated all trade to and from America, controlled directly by Monarchy – 300 year monopoly, Guild system – only 3 ports
Flota
the fleet that sailed from Spain to Vera Cruz, only ones allowed to do trade with Americas
Fonseca
clergyman, advisor to Charles V; suggested to establish body to rule over the Indies
Council of the Indies
highest authority over Americas under king, located in Castile, founded 1524 and lasted 300 years, passed Laws of the Indies
Functions of the Council of the Indies
power to nominate officers (not appoint), legislative powers – make laws, judicial functions – highest court of appeals for Indies, censorship, investigations, report writing, codification of laws etc
Viceroy
king's alter-ego in Americas, represented power of the king
Audencias
high court and advisory body to a regional chief executive in Spanish colonies; also territorial jurisdiction of such a court
Oidor
Spanish colonial judge, member of an audencia
Gobenadores
under viceroys, govern provinces; exercise very similar powers to viceroy but on smaller level
Cabildo
town council in Americas
Encomienda
assignment of Indian tribute to individuals/institutions who participated in conquest - given land as well as duty to protect and Christianize Indians
Fray Bartoleme de las Casas
denounced mistreatment of Indians, gave lead to debate over how to treat Indians
Sepulveda
contrasted with de las Casas; employed papal donation and Aristotle's doctrine of natural slavery to justify conquest and conversion
Black Legend
international anti-Spanish sentiment, depiction of Spaniards as “cruel, intolerant and fanatical,” exaggeratedly negative portrayals of Spanish Inquisition and colonization in Americas
Presidio
frontier fortress/garrison to protect the colonies from attack by pirates
Residencia
judicial review of an official's conduct at the end of his term in office
Patronato Real
right of Spanish kings to dispose of all ecclesiastical benefices; patronage over the church
Levels of Conquest
physical, legal, religious
Repartimiento
(a) the distribution of Indians or land among Spanish settlers during the first years of the Conquest, (b) the periodic conscription of Indians for labor useful to the Spanish community, (c) the mandatory purchase of merchandise by Indians from colonial officials
Cacique
Indian chieftain, usually hereditary
Alcalde
head of municipal government - mayor
Corregidor
governor of a municipal district; administration of Indian communities - protect from extortionate practices; usually biggest offendor
corregimiento
territory governed by a corregidor
capitulacion
contract between the Castilian Crown and a private citizen, usually outlining terms of exploration, conquest and settlement
creole
Spaniard born in the new world
peninsular
Spaniard born in Iberia
Mestizo
child of mixed Spanish and Indian blood
Mita
the colonial forced labor draft that provided Indian workers on a rotational basis
visita
an official inspection into the conduct of bureaucrats, usually unscheduled and unexpected
alcabala
taxes on sales
adelantado
only in early conquest, governor of frontier district in colonial times
Caja Real
in administration of the Indies, control revenue/public treasury