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19 Cards in this Set

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Seeking natural explanation for impirical phenomena or experience as opposed to supernatural explanations for the same phenomena or experience.
Observation sentences: For W.V. Quine, those sentences which report observable situations
Sensory Experience:
That experience which results from our senses such as sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste.
The view that knowledge is the result of sensory experience and that the content of thought is ultimately traceable back to sensory experience
Occasion sentence:
Observation sentences that are true on a particular occasion but may not be true on another occasion. I.E. “It’s raining” or “I’m wearing a coat.”
(British Empiricist)
insisted that all knowledge of reality is a posteriori—(Follows from experience) vigorously reacted to Descartes views of the opposite.
**One crucial problem that empiricists face arises from the distinction between an objective reality and our experience of it**
Barry Stroud
argues that we have no way of checking out what the real world would be like (contemporary philosopher)
W. V. Quine – Empiricist and Naturalist
(Language Acquistions) Contemporary empiricist .. we learn the meanings of language by observing people’s behaviors in specific situations while specific words are uttered.
Immanuel Kant-
theory of transcendental idealism… demonstrated that knowledge of reality is possible…. Phenomena and noumena
What is Berkeley's criticism of Locke's view of material objects?
Berkeley’s criticism of Locke’s view of material objects is that all we ever know are our own ideas; only conscious minds and their perceptions exist. As opposed to Locke’s view of mankind’s experiences represent the outside/ material world.
Describe what Quine means by "occasion sentences" and give at least
two examples. How does this concept relate to language acquisition? “observation sentences” Instinct to learn…
What Quine means by occasion sentences is any sentence that is mimicked at the time of an initial observation. Example being: It is raining. The boy is crying. This concept relates to language acquisition by the way that we as humans form our thoughts and beliefs. We build our thought process through observing one another and gather information to communicate to others if deemed necessary to communicate to another person.
As used by empiricist, basically the contents of the mind which have been acquired, ultimately, through sensory experience.
Inductive: Either an act of the understanding in which a generalization is made from some particulars, or a probable inference is claimed to hold between two or more statements.
To doubt the truth of some claim or the adequacy of the justification for some claim.
Cognitive language:
The use of language to make claims which have truth value or to express beliefs.
John Locke (British Empiricist)
our experiences represent the outside world.** Color is a simple idea. A single desk is a complex idea. Stated there is a gap between ideas and the material objects there are supposed copies of.
Objects have certain inherent qualities distinct from our perception of it. Qualities it would have even if it were not perceived.(PRIMARY QUALITIES) Ideas are represented by this also.
George Berkeley (British Empiricist)
all we ever know are our own ideas; only conscious minds and their perceptions exist.** Material objects do not exist. Argued that an object is a collection of ideas.
David Hume (British Empiricist)
reality is not truly knowable** skeptic.. Ideas are distinguished from impressions by impressions having more force and vivacity. Argued that causality was the constanct conjuction between distinct events. Our belief in an external, material world is the result of custom and habit.
Rene Descartes- (A rationalist)
who attempted to demonstrate the validity of a priori knowledge—that is , knowledge independent of sensory perception.
Karl Popper- .
argued that scientific theories are those that are widely accepted by a community of scientists
How does Hume bring Locke's and Berkeley's empiricist views to a logical conclusion?
Hume brings Locke’s and Berkeley’s empiricist views to a logical conclusion by stating reality is truly not knowable. Both of Locke’s and Berkeley’s view in his opinion could be right on target or they both could be totally wrong.