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### 20 Cards in this Set

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 Axioms: A proposition or truth claims held to be self-evidently true and so neither requiring nor capable of proof. (See the definitions of theorem and proof below.) Contingent Truths: Truth claims that are described by some philosophers as being true in a particular context or dependent upon at least one world but not all worlds. Thus, if it is a contingent truth that there is an apple on my desk, it is contingent since there are other circumstances or worlds where it is false that there is an apple on my desk. (See the definition of necessary truth below.) Empiricism: The view that all of our ideas come from experience and that no belief about any matter of fact can be known independent of experience. Geometry: The mathematical study of the properties and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. Geometry (Descartes) The mathematical study of the properties and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. Law of inertia: According to Galileo and Newton, a natural law describing the fact that an object at rest will remain at rest, while an object in motion will remain in motion. Necessary truths: Truth claims that are described by some philosophers as being universally true, or true in all possible worlds. Thus, if it is a necessary truth that three is a prime number, then three is a prime number in all possible worlds or is universally true. Proof: A belief or set of beliefs or propositions that are offered in support of the truth of the claim of another belief or proposition. The proof that this U. S. president is a U. S. citizen is that all U. S. presidents are U. S. citizens. Also the act of giving reasons to believe. Properties: A quality or attribute of a thing or substance that cannot exist independent of some substance. Color and beauty are properties. While a bicycle can exist without being blue, blue can only exist as part of a bicycle or substance. Pure reasoning: As used in this episode, it means to think or understand independent of sensory experience. Rationalism: The view that the mind has innate ideas or powers and that by means of this knowledge, matters of fact or reality can be had independent of sensory input. Tabula rasa: Literally, the blank tablet; philosophically, a description most often associated with empiricists views of the empty or blank mind prior to experience furnishing the mind with impressions or ideas. Theorems: Propositions or truth claims that are typically deduced using logical rules from a set of axioms or first principles. Theory: A general and/or abstract proposition used to explain a set of phenomena or to give an account of a confirmed hypothesis. Platos(rationalist) Dialogue (The Meno) - learning is best understood as remembering ideas one already possesses. The Meno, dialogue, Socrates has a slave boy solve a mathematical problem. Descartes (rationalist)- used the example of the wax to demonstrate that we know physical or material objects through an intuition of the mind. Assumed that some evil genius not less powerful than deceitful, has employed his whole energies in deceiving me.: Leibniz (rationalist) - example of veins in a block of marble marking out the figure of Hercules was an attempt to illustrate the nature of innate ideas. What are innate ideas and why are they essential to rationalism? Innate ideas are ideas that we have independent of experiences. They are essential to rationalism because they are the foundation for our thought(s) and reasoning process "If the rationalist had said only that math and abstract ideas are innate, they would have gotten little argument from the empiricists." Do you agree - why? I agree because the fundamental thoughts of the empiricists is that all of our knowledge of the universe comes through our senses. Rationalist believe that some knowledge is based on reason rather than on sensory perception Does it tend to be true that 2+2=4 or is it always, everywhere and forever true that 2+2=4? Describe what kind of "truth" is demonstrated by each example, along with any other examples you might recall. It is always true everywhere and forever true that 2 + 2 = 4. The truth demonstrated here is a necessary truth. Example being any mathematical example such as 2 divided by 4 equal 2 or 2 multiplied by 12 equals 24.