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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Organization
*CNS-brain and spinal cord(process info)
*peripheral NS-info(AP's) into/out of CNS
Afferent Neurons
*AP's to spinal cord and/or brain
*Both conscious(senses)/unconscious
Efferent Neurons
*Carry AP's out of CNS: somatic NS->muscles
*Automatic NS-->parasymphathetic NS->controls day to day homeostasis
*Sympathetic NS-emergencies
Interneurons
*in CNS
*greater than 99% of all neurons
*CNS functions:thinking, emotions, memory
Glial Cells
*support cells in CNS
*capable of mitosis(neurons have to mitosis; cant subdivide)
*cancer potential
Glial Cells
-astrocytes
*hold neurons in proper position, neural growth
*control growth of blood vessels--blood-brain barrier
*repair->scar tissue
*recycle

glutomate GABA/ K+ concentration extracelluarly
Glial Cells
-Oligodendrocytes
*form myelin sheets around axon interneurons
*limits neual growth in CNS
Glial Cells
-Microglia
*immunity cells of CNS
*phagocytes -ingest dead tissue
-migrate to areas of damage or infection
*uncontrolled-may contribute to neurodegenarative diseases(alzheimers)
Glial cells
-ependymal cells
*secrete cerebral spinal fluid into ventricles and around brain
Glial Cells
-cancer potential
*glial cells
*diagnosis is different
*neurons no mitosis --- no cancer potential
Nutrition
*brain needs-oxygen, glucose
*no glucose storage in brain--constant blood supply
*liver stores glucose as glycogen to maintain blood glucose
*no blood supply to brain=stroke(block or break in blood vessel)
Cortex
*cerebrum--upper part of brain-ridged
*human qualities-thought, language, morals
Cortex
-Lobes
*there are 4 lobes
FRONTAL(front)-control movement, make decisions, personality/morals
PARIETAL(top)-touch sensations, proprioception(perception of your position in space)
EXCIPITAL(back)-vision
TEMPORAL(sides)-hearing, emotions
Cortex
-Plasticity
*learning- new synapses by extending dendrites and axons
*make most new synapses when you use that part of brain damage: axons migrate from adjacent area-MAY recover--rehab is both hard and good
Cortex
-Language Control
*left hemisphere
*connect sounds and symbols with objects
*Broca's area-frontal lobe-speech formation
*Wernicke's area-temporal lobe-speech understanding
Cortex
-Association Areas
*integrate different senses/ideas
*pre-frontal association cortex
*higher brain functions
*personality, planning, morals(right/wrong), touching, learning, vision
*peridal/temporal/osipital association cortex--> integrate physical world view
Cortex
-Hemispheres
*right-visual, spatial relation, aesthetic
*left-analytical processing and language dominant side
*genius-uses both sides
Cortex
-Electroencephalogram(EEG)
*sum of all action potentials measured of surface
*used to diagnose Petit Mal Epilepsy-3 Hz EEG
*EEG used to detemine life or death
(shows spikes, if dead shows straight line)