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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The heart is located within the thoracic cavity between the _____?
Lungs
The heart is __/__ to the left of the midline?
2/3
The pericardium has 2 parts?
– Fibrous Pericardium
– Serous Pericardium
What part of the pericardium is that outer inelastic portion that prevents overstretching of the heart?
Fibrous Pericardium
What part of the pericardium is the inner double layer?
Serous Pericardium
The serous pericardium has 2 parts?
– Parietal Layer
– Visceral Layer
With the serous pericardium, what layer fuses it to the fibrous pericardium?
Parietal Layer
With the serous pericardium, what layer attaches it to the heart?
Visceral Layer(epicardium)
With the pericardium, this is the space filled with fluid to reduce friction?
Pericardial Cavity
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
– Epicardium
– Myocardium
– Endocardium
What layer of the heart wall is the outer layer?
Epicardium
What layer of the heart wall is the cardiac muscle "bulk" of the heart?
Myocardium
What layer of the heart wall is the inner lining of the heart?
Endocardium
Cardiac muscle fibers form separate _____ & _____ networks?
– Atrial
– Ventricular
Cardiac muscle fibers in each network are connected by _____ discs that contain _____ junctions?
– Intercalated
– Gap
With cardiac muscle fibers, the atria contract/relax as a _____ unit?
Single
With cardiac muscle fibers, the ventricles contract/relax as a _____ unit?
Single
With the heart structure, how many chambers are there?
4
With the 4 chambers of the heart, there are 2 upper _____ chambers, and 2 lower _____chambers?
– Atrial
– Ventricular
Which chambers of the heart is separated by the interatrial septum?
2 Upper Atrial Chambers
Which chambers of the heart is separated by the interventricular septum?
2 Lower Ventricular Chambers
The left ventricle is the _____ chamber, and has the _____ workload?
– Thickest
– Greatest
The left ventricle pumps blood to the _____ circulation?
Systemic (body)
With the heart vessels, the right side has deoxygenated blood that is delivered to the right atrium by the?
– Superior Vena Cava
– Inferior Vena Cava
– Coronary Sinus
With the heart vessels, the right side has deoxygenated blood that is delivered to the right atrium by the superior and inferior vena cava from the _____?
System
With the heart vessels, the right side has deoxygenated blood that is delivered to the right atrium by the coronary sinus (vein) from the?
Myocardium
Deoxygenated blood pathway?
– Right Atrium
– Right Ventricle
– Pulmonary Trunk
– Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries
– Lungs
With the heart vessels, the left side is where the _____ _____ deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs?
Pulmonary Veins
Oxygenated blood pathway?
– Left Atrium
– Left Ventricle
– Aorta
– System
What prevents backflow of blood into atria in response to pressure changes?
Atrioventricular Valves (AV)
The atrioventricular valves (AV) are between the _____ & ______?
-Atria
-Ventricles
Atrioventricular valves?
– Left AV
– Right AV
What AV is bicuspid (mitral)?
Left AV
What AV is tricuspid valve?
Right AV
AV valves, bicuspid and tricuspid open during ventricle _____ (_____)?
Relaxation (filling)
Semilunar valves (SL) ?
– Aortic
– Pulmonary
Semilunar valves (SL) aortic and pulmonary open during ventricular _____ (_____ _____)?
Contraction (blood ejection)
What heart valve disorder is narrowing of the heart valve?
Stenosis
What heart valve disorder is failure of valve to close completely?
Insufficiency (incompetents)
What heart valve disorder is most common, and is where the the valve protrudes into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, causing backflow of blood?
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
2 types of heart blood flow?
– Pulmonary Circulation
– Systemic Circulation
Which type of blood flow has deoxygenated blood ejected by right ventricle to lungs?
Pulmonary Circulation
Which type of blood flow has oxygenated blood ejected by left ventricle to system (body)?
Systemic Circulation
Myocardium blood vessels?
Coronary Circulation
Branches of ascending aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to myocardium?
Left And Right Coronary Arteries
Main heart vein, drains deoxygenated blood from myocardium into right atrium?
Coronary Sinus
Reduction of blood flow to myocardium?
Myocardial Ischemia
Reduced oxygen supply to tissue?
Hypoxia
Squeezing sensation of chest "strangled chest" ?
Angina Pectoris
Death of heart muscle?
Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)
Route for nerve impulses through the heart, is what system?
Conduction System
Conduction system pathway?
– Sinoatrial (SA) Node
– AV Node
– AV Bundle (bundle of his)
– Bundle Branches
– Purkinje Fibers
The conduction system begins at the _____ (_____) node?
Sinoatrial (SA)
With the conduction system, which node stimulates atrial contraction?
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
With the conduction system, which node is where conduction slows and permits atria to add blood into the ventricles?
AV Node
With the conduction system, what stimulates ventricular myocardium causing contraction?
Purkinje Fibers
The conduction system contains cardiac cells that _____ (fire) _____?
– Depolarize
– Automatically
Fires 100 x's /minute?
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
Fires 40-60 x's /minute?
AV Node
Fires 30 x's /minute?
– AV Bundle
– Bundle Branches
Fastest part of conduction system that sets the pace of the heart is normally which node?
SA Node
At rest, which nervous system slows SA node to 75 beats/minute?
Parasympathetic
Recording of heart currents?
ECG
With a ECG, what = atrial depolarization (contraction)?
P-Wave
With a ECG, what = ventricular depolarization (contraction) marks a atrial repolarization?
QRS Complex
With a ECG, what = ventricular repolarization (relaxation)?
T-Wave
With the cardiac cycle, the atria and ventricles _____ contract and relax?
Alternately
With the cardiac cycle, the atria and ventricles alternately contract and relax and forces blood from _____ to _____ pressure (more space)?
– Higher
– Lower
T wave –> ventricular _____ (expansion)?
Diastole
With ventricular diastole (expansion), ventricular pressure _____, below _____ pressure?
– Drops
– Atrial
With ventricular diastole (expansion), the ventricular pressure drops below atrial pressure and _____ valves _____?
– AV
– Open
With ventricular diastole (expansion), the ventricular pressure drops below atrial pressure and AV valves open and starts _____ filling?
Ventricular
Atrial systole (contractions)?
P-Wave
P-wave –> arterial systole (contraction) _____ ventricular filling?
Completes
Ventricular systole (contraction)?
QRS Complex
With QRS complex the _____ valves close and the _____ valves open ejecting blood?
– AV
– Semilunar
With QRS complex the AV valves close and the semilunar valves open ejecting blood and each ventricle ejects the _____ volume of blood per _____?
– Same
– Beat
Volume of blood ejected per minute from each ventricle?
Cardiac Output (CO)
CO= _____(_____) X _____(_____)?
Stroke Volume (SV) X Heart Rate (HR)
Blood ejected per beat?
Stroke Volume (SV)
Beats per minute?
Heart Rate (HR)
Within limits, the more the heart is filled (stretched) the stronger the force of contraction will increase SV.
Frank-Starling Law
With the regulation of stroke volume, increased sympathetic activity _____ SV?
Increases
High pressure in the aorta _____ SV?
Decreases
When high pressure in the aorta decreases SV, semilunar valves open _____?
Slower
_____ adjusts pacemaker?
ANS
Cardiovascular center location?
Medulla
The parasympathetic system _____ heart rate?
Slows
The parasympathetic system slows heart rate by what nerve?
Vagus Nerve
The sympathetic system _____ heart rate?
Increases
What exercise strengthens cardiovascular system?
Aerobic
At rest, the cardiac output of a trained athlete is what to a untrained person?
The Same
A trained athlete and a untrained person has the same co at rest due to a _____ heart rate and _____ stroke volume?
-Lower
-Higher
Abnormal rhythm caused by a defect in the conduction system?
Arrhythmia
What is it called when the heart fails to pump blood effectively?
Congestive Heart Failure
Left ventricle fails, causing fluid in lungs?
Pulmonary Edema
Right ventricles fails, causing swelling in feet and ankles?
Peripheral Edema