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70 Cards in this Set

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Stimulates liver, muscle, cartilage, bone, & other tissues to synthesize & secrete insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Promote growth of body cells, protein synthesis, tissue repair, breakdown of triglycerides & elevation of blood glucose.
Human Growth Hormone
(hGH)
Stimulates synthesis & secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH)
In females, initiates development of oocytes & induces secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. In males, stimulates testes to produce sperm.
Follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH)
in females, stimulates secretion of estrogens & progesterone, ovulation, & fomation of corpus lutem. In males, stimulates testes to produce testosterone.
Luteinizing hormone.
(LH)
In females, stimulates milk production by the mammary glands.
Prolactin
(PRL)
Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) by the adrenal cortex.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),
aka: Corticotropin
Exact rol in humans is unknown but may influence brain activity. When present in excess, can cause darkening of skin.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
(MSH)
Stimulates contraction of smooth muscle cells of uterus during childbirth. Stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands.
Oxytocin
(OT)
Conserves body water by decreasing urine output. Decreases water loss through sweating. Raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles.
Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)
aka: Vasopressin
What are the 2 types of pituitary hormones?
1- Anterior Pituitary Hormones
2- Posterior Pituitary Hormones
What are the Anterior Pituitary Hormones controlled by?
Hypothalmus
Name the 7 anterior pituitary hormones.
1. Human growth hormone (hGH)
2.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4. Luteinizing hormone (LT)
5. Prolactin (PRL)
6. Andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
What is the function of the posterior pituitary hormones?
To store and secrete Oxytocin (OT) and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which hormone requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus for its secretion?
Prolactin
For the formation of thyroxine (T4) to occur, it is essential that __________ be present.
Iodine
Parathyroid hormone promotes formation of which hormone that stimulates the absorptionof calcium ions from the digestive tract?
Calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D)
What stimulates the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland?
Low levels of calcium ion in the blood
Classified as a glucocorticoid?
Cortisol
Target cells for hypothalamic releasing hormones are in the __________ __________.
Anterior pituitary
Which gland/organ has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
Pancreas (beta produce insulin)
Produce antagonistic results?
Calcitonin & Parathyroid Hormone
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Stimulates protein synthesis & inhibits protiein breakdown
Human growth hormone, through the action of insulinlike growth factors
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids results in the following clinical symptoms: redistribution of body fat, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension 'moon face' & buffalo hump' excessive brusing, & poor wound healing.
Cushing's syndrome
Premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
A sign of pituitary dwarfism
(hyposecretion of hGH)
The concentration of calcium ions & phosphates in the blood is regulated by_____
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
(raises blood calcium level)
Hormone that influences metabolism of most somatic cells?
Triiodothyronine (T3)
(contains 3 atoms of iodine)
Associated with diabetes mellitus?
Glycosuria
Polyuria
Ketosis
Hyperglycemia
The major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
Hypothalamus
The cell bodies of the axons of the posterior pituitary gland are actually located in the ___________.
Hypothalamus of the brain
Abnormally high levels of which anterior pituitary hormone will lead to hyperglycemia?
Human growth hormone
(hGH)
The posterior pituitary gland stores & secretes?
Oxytocin (OT) and
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Abnormally low secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in the disease.
Diabetes insipidis
Adrenal hormones useful in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatism.
Glucocorticoids
Type II diabetes most often occurs in humans who are overweight and what age?
Over 35 years
Either a deficiency in insulin production by the pancreas or defects in insulin receptors on target cells results in what disease?
Diabetes Mellitus
Where is the pineal gland is located?
In the Brain
Jet lag is associated witht he changes in secretion of a hormone from the _________ gland.
Pineal
What are hormone secretions regulated by?
-Neural signals
-Blood chemistry changes
-Other hormones
Which gland produces a hormone that raises blood calcium ion levels?
Parathyroid
Where are hormones transported?
Blood stream
How do hormones affect target cells?
TC may contain many types of receptors, permitting cell to respond to more than one hormone.
Release occurs in short burst
Regulated by
Signals from nervous system
Most controlled by negative feedback
Chemical changes in the blood
Blood Ca2+ affects parathyroid hormone release
Other Hormones
Control of horomone secretions
Major link between nervous system and endocrine system
Controls Anterior pituitary by releasing stimulating or inhibiting hormones through a series of blood vessels
Controls Posterior pituitary by a neural connection
Hypothalamus
(Master Gland)
Anterior & Posterior portions
Located in depression of Sphenoid bone
Attached to hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Stimulates protein synthesis
-Maintains muscle & bone mass
- promotes healing of injuries, tissue repair
Produces ATP “fuel” available for growth
-breaks down liver glycogen & fats increasing blood glucose levels
Human Growth Hormone
(hGH)
Disorders:
Hyposercetion of hGH
Hypersecretion of hGH
-Pituitary dwarfism
-Gigantisms
-Stimulates thyroid gland -Stimulates ovaries & testies
-Stimulates ovaries & testies
-Stimulates adrenal cortex
-Stimulates the melancytes
-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
-Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
-Prolactin (PRL)
-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Location: Inferior to larynx (Voicebox)
Structure
Follicular cells produce
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine(T4)
Parafollicular Cells produce
Calcitonin (CT)
Thyroid Gland
Decreases “tones down” blood Ca2+
Inhibits osteoclast activity; calcium remains in bone
Strengthens bones
Commonly used to treat osteoporosis
Controlled by blood Ca2+ levels
Antagonistic to Parathyroid hormone
Calcitonin
Increase blood Ca2+
Stimulates osteoclast activity; breaks down bone
Slows Ca2+ loss in urine
Stimulates production of calcitriol (active form of vitamin D); increase Ca2+ absorption in GI tract
Parathyroid hormone
(PTH)
Located posterior to thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands
Located posterior to stomach
Both an exocrine and endocrine organ
Endocrine cells
Pancreas
Pancreatic Islets
*Produce glucagon?
*Produce insulin?
*Alpha cells
*Beta cells
Stimulates glucagon release
Glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown, increasing blood glucose
Low blood glucose
Stimulates insulin release
Insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis by permitting glucose into liver cells, decreasing blood glucose
Insulin stimulates excessive glycogen to produce fat
High blood glucose
Most common endocrine disorder: Inability to produce or use insulin; blood glucose levels increase “spilling” into urine.
Hallmarks: Polyria (excessive urine)
Polydipsid (excessive thirst)
Polyphagia (excessive eating)
Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin dependent): Auto immune; beta cells destroyed
Type I Diabetes
Most common.
Controlled by diet, exercise, and &weight loss most non-insulin dependent, target become less sensitive to insulin
Type II Diabetes
Where are adrenal (suprarenal) glands
Superior to kidneys
Name the two regions of the adrenal gland.
1. Outer Cortex
2. Inner Medulla
Name the trhree zones of the outer cortex.
All produce steriods
1. Outer-Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)
2. Middle-Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
3. Inner-Androgens (Testosterone)
Produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
Inner Medulla of the adrenal gland.
Increases blood glucose during stress
Anti-inflammatory effect
Suppresses immune system
Organ transplants
Glucocorticoid (Cortisol)
Disorders
Cushings Syndrome:
Hypersecreation of cortisol;
Hyperglycemia & weight gain
Addisons Disease:
Hyposecretion of cortisol
Hypoglycemia & weight loss
Glucocorticoid (Cortisol)
Males & females secrete small amounts
After menopause , all female estrogens come from :
Adrenal Androgens
Inner portion of adrenal glands
Enhances Sympathetic nervous system
-Release epinephrine & nor epinephrine
*Increases heart rate, blood pressure & respiratory rate
*Increases blood glucose for ATP production
Adrenal Medulla
-Produce gametes (sperm & egg)
-Testosterone in males
-Estrogen & Progesterone in females
Ovaries & testis
-Located in brain
-Produces melatonin, promotes sleep
-Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
-Type of depression; over production of melatonin
Pineal Gland
*Occurs during extreme or long lasting stresses (disturbances)
*3 stages
1. Initial “Fight or Flight - Sympathetic Response
2. Resistance - Endocrine Response
3.Exhaustion - Death may result if stress continues
The Stress Response