Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why was Jenner's vaccine superior to previous methods for conferring resistance to smallpox?
His method of using Cowpox infection to confer immunity to smallpox was superior to early methods because it carried sig. lowered risks of serious disease. The earlier method of using materials from lesions of smallpox victims conferred immunity but at the risk of acquiring the potentially lethal disease.
Did the tx for rabies used by pasteur confer active or passive immunity to the rabies virus? Is there anyway to test this?
It consisted of series of inoculations with attenuated virus. The actively immunizes the recipient who will have anti-rabies to stop the progression of the infection.
This can be tested by testing the rec.s blood for presence of anti-rabies abs after completion of a tx once the tx abs have cleared from circulation. Could also inject with attenuated rabies to see if a 2ndary response occurs (ethical concerns tho)
Infants immediately after birth are often at risk for infection with group B streptococcus. A vaccine is proposed for administration to women of childbearing years. How can immunizing the mothers help the babies?
The immunized mothers would confer immunity to their babies bc the anti-streptococcal abs cross the placental barrier and are present in the babies at birth. Also the colostrums and milk from the mom would contain abs to protect the nursing infant from infection
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves class I MHC molecules
CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

responds to viral infection
H & CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves T helper cells
H & CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves processed antigen
H & CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

responds following an organ transplant
CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves T cytotoxic cells
CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves B cells
H
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves T cells
CM
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

responds to extracellular bacterial infection
H
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

involves secreted antibody
H
Which branch of the Immune system (Humoral or Cell-Mediated) applies to:

kills virus-infected self cells
CM
. Adaptive immunity exhibits four char. attributes which are mediated by lymphocytes. List these four attributes and briefly explain how they arise
1. Specificity

2. Diversity

3. Memory

4. Self/nonself recognition

Spec. is the ability of certain membrane-bd molecules on a mature lymphocyte to recognize only a single ag (or small number of related ags)....Rearrangement of the ig genes during lymphocyte maturation gives rise to antigenic specificity and to a vast array of different specificities, or diversity, among mature lymphocytes....the ability of the immune system to respond to nonself-mols but not self-mols is the result of elimination during lymphocyte maturation of immature cells that recognize self ags....after exposure to a particular ag, mature lymphocytes reactive with that ag proliferate and differentiate, generating a larger pop. of memory cells with the same specificity...this pop. can respond more rapidly and intensely after a subsequent exposure to the same ag, thus displaying immunologic memory
Name three features of a secondary immune response that dist. it from a primary immune response.
The secondary immune response involves an amplified pop. of memory cells...the response is more rapid and achieves higher levels than the primary response.
Compare and contrast the four types of antigen-binding molecules used by the immune system - antibodies, T-cell receptors, class 1 MHC molecules, and class II MHC molecules - in terms of the following characteristic :

specificity for antigen
Both abs and T-cell receptors display fine specificity for ag (very small modifications in an ag can prohibit its binding to it's corrresponding ab or T-cell receptor. MHC mol.s do not possess such fine specificity, and a variety of unrelated peptide ags can be bound by the same MHC molecule.
Compare and contrast the four types of antigen-binding molecules used by the immune system - antibodies, T-cell receptors, class 1 MHC molecules, and class II MHC molecules - in terms of the following characteristic :

cellular expression
Abs are expressed only by cells of the B-cells lineage, T-cell receptors are expressed by cells of the T-cell lineage, Class I MHC molecules are expressed only by specialized cells that function as ag-presenting cells (ex. B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells)
Compare and contrast the four types of antigen-binding molecules used by the immune system - antibodies, T-cell receptors, class 1 MHC molecules, and class II MHC molecules - in terms of the following characteristic :

types of antigens recognized
Abs can bind to protein or polysacch ags... T-cell receptors recognize only peptides associated with MHC molecules...MHC mol.s bind only processed peptides
?, ?, and ? all function as antigen-presenting cells.
MACROPHAGES, B CELLS, DENDRITIC CELLS
Antigen-presenting cells deliver a ? signal to ? cells.
CO-STIMULATORY, TH CELLS
Only antigen-presenting cells express class ? molecules, whereas nearly all cells express class ? MHC molecules.
II , I
The scientific term that refers to white blood cells in general is ?
LEUKOCYTE
The ? arm of the immune system is so called because antibodies are generated in response to specific pathogens. Prior exposure to a pathogen is reqd for this part of the immune system to develop
ADAPTIVE
T cells must have coreceptors so that they can efficiently bind to MHC molecules. The coreceptor for recognition of class I MHC is ? and the coreceptor for recogition of class II is called ?.
CD8, CD4
The part of the antigen bound by an ab is known as the ?
EPITOPE
The T cell is said to be class I restricted. What does this mean?
They can recognize only ag that is associ. with class I MHC mol.s
Innate and adaptive immunity act in cooperative and interdependent ways to protect the host. Discuss the collaboration of these two forms of immunity.
Cooperate to give complete response against pathogens. ex) phagocytic cell (that takes up foreign material and processes it to form peptide antigens that are presented by the phagocyte). The presented ags stim. T-cells that either provide help to B-cells for production of ab or stim. cytotoxic T-cells to provide protection against infected or cancerous cells. In addn., the phagocytic cells take part in inflammation, producting cytokines that attract T and B cells to the site.
Give ex.s of mild and severe consequences of immune dysfunction. What is the most common cause of immunodeficiency throughout the world today?
Mild = hives, sneezing, skin rashes from allergies
More severe = asthma, anaphylatic rxns (both can result in death)
Consequences of severe immune dysfuncition incl. : susceptibility to infection by a variety of microbial pathogens if the dysfunction involves immunodeficiency, or chronic debilitating diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis) if the dysfunction involves autoimmunity. The most common cause of immunodeficiency is infection with the retrovirus HIV-1 which leads to AIDS.
true or false? B cells only recognize antigen presented by class I or class II MHC molecules
F
true or false? Both cell types can recognize antigen in solution (without cells)
F
true or false? Both cell types recognize extracellular matrix-bd antigens
F
true or false? T cells only recognize antigen presented by class I or class II MHC molecules
T
True or False (if F explain why)


Booster shots are reqd bc repeated exposure to an antigen builds a stronger immune response
T
True or False (if F explain why)

The gene for the T cell receptor must be cut and spliced together, deleting entire sections, before it can be transcribed
T
True or False (if F explain why)

Our bodies face the greatest onslaught from foreign invaders thru our mucous membranes
T
True or False (if F explain why)

Increased production of ab in the immune system is driven by the presence of ag
T
True or False (if F explain why)

ag. is bound directly by T cells.
F (ag must be presented to T cells in the context of MHC molecules)
True or False (if F explain why)

Peptides are added to the binding cleft of the class MHC I molecules in the cytosol
F ( peptides are added to the binding cleft of MHC class I molecules in the vesicle)
True or False (if F explain why)

In order for B cells to mature into plasma cells they need "help" from T cells
T
Match cell type with receptor:

Antigen presenting cell
MHC
Match cell type with receptor:

B Cell
BCR
Match cell type with receptor:

Helper T cell
CD4+
Match cell type with receptor:

Cytotoxic T cell
CD8+