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54 Cards in this Set

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What is sleep hygiene
what you do before you go to bed ;interventions to promote sleep; mostly non-pharmacologic; includes bedtime rituals, restful environment, promotion of confort, relaxation and use of hyponotic meds
What is the sleep pattern of infants
Sleep 14-15 hours per day; wake every 3-4 hours; wakefulness increases with age; 50% of sleep in in stage 4 and 50% in light sleep
neurotranittors affecting wake/ sleep cycle
seratonin - lessons respons to sensory stimulation; melatonin - secreated by pinal gland at darkenss, causes the decrease in RAS stimulation; Cortisol is inhibited during sleep; Wakefulness associate with higher levels of Acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline
What do seditive-hypnotic meds do to enhance sleep and what effects on sleep do they have
depresses the CNS; Unnatrual sleep; Daytime drowsiness and morning hangover may occur; Possible insomnia rebound when discontinued; REM or Nrem sleep is altered; New meds (ambien) do not alter REM or NREM
How can taking anti-anxiety meds enhance sleep
by decreasing arousal by facilitating the action of the neurons in the CNSthat suppresses resonce to stimuli. Cannot be used during pregnacy
Parasonmia's
Par = during Somnia = sleep Behaviors that interfere with sleep or occur during sleep
Unsufficent sleep causes what
Mistakes to be made, daytime sleepiness and fatigue; Staying awake 19 hours will make same affects a s Blood alcohol level of .05
What causes narcolepsy
Cause is lack of hypocretin in the CNS.
What is narcolepsy
A sleep disorder caused by lack of hypocretin in the CNS. Clients have sudden sleep attacks. Nightime sleep begins with REM;
Hypersomnia
Person get enough sleep during the night but cannot stay awake during the day. Can be caused by a medical condition;(EX: ENS damage, metabolic disorder, hyperthyroidism) rarely caused by psycholoigical diorder
what disorders can cause excessive daytime sleepiness
hypersomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea and insuffienct sleep
What is insomnia
the inablity to fall asleep or remain asleep. Ther person awakes feeling not rested it is the most common complaint Acute = 1 to several nights; Chronic = More than a month
What is the sleep schedule of an elderly person
Waken 1.3 hours eariler each day and go to bed 1 hours earlier each day. increases in sleep disturbances; Quality of sleep decreases; The ablility to go to sleep decreases. Short nap may be restorative;
What is Sundowners syndrome
A syndrome of dementia clients that experience a patterns of symptoms in the late afternoon of aggression, anxiety, agitation, delutions
What factors can interrupt your sleep
Illness; environment; lifestyle (activity) emotional stress; stimulant and alcohol, diet, motavation, medications
What is the usual adolescent sleep schedule
9-10 hours per day; Boys begin nocturnal emission; Circadum rhythem shifts so it is normal for then to sleep in and stay up late
What is the usual school aged childs sleep schedule
10-11 hours per day; TV, computers and social activites may decrease the amount of sleep. A regular constant schedule and bedtime routine will help
How much sleep should and adult get per night
7-10 but it varies (6-10); People will say they dont need that much sleep, but actullay the body needs it. It must gets use to the amount given (routine)
What is the usual sleep pattern of a pre-schooler
11-13 hours per day;; Sleep fluctuates with growth pattern and activites; may dislike bedtime; may become irratable if requirements are not met; Maintain a regular constant bedtime
What is the usual sleep pattern of a toddler (age 2-3)
12-14 hours per day; needs afternoon naps; may exhibit resistance to going to bed; may waken with nighmares or night fears (afraid of the dark)
What is the usual sleep pattern of newborns
16-18 hours per day; the enter REM right away; 50% of their sleep is in REM
What are the functions of sleep
A physio and pysco restorative time; A time to conserve energy; Time for dreaming; Nescessary for protein synthesis - allows for repairs; Restores balcne and normal activity levels of the nervous system; Plays a role in pschological well being
What will inadequate sleep cause
poor concetration, irritabiltiy, trouble with desision makeing
describe the normal sleep cycle
1 cycle will last 90-110 minutes; a person goes through 4-6 cycles per night 1 cycle = NREM 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM
if you wake up from sleeping what cycle of sleep will you restart in
you will beging again in stage 1 NREM
What are the deepest stages of sleep
NREM 3 and 4; essential for restoring engergy and releasing hormones
What physical changes happen in deep sleep stages
(deep sleep stages = 3 & 4 NREM) the HR,RR decrease; sketeton muscles relaxed refexes are diminished; snoring occures; saliva and swallowing are reduced; deep sleep brain waves
describe the stage 2 NREM sleep
a period of light sleep. the body processes continue to slow down, the eyes are generally still; HR and RR fall; body temp falls; harder to awaken than stage 1
Describe Stage 1 NREM sleep
a period of light sleep that last only minutes; The person feels drowsy and relaxed. The sleeper can readily be awakend and may deny they were sleeping
What are the characteristics of REM sleep
Brain waves are highl active; Brain metabolism increases by 20%; GI secretions increase; HR and R are irregular; EEG activity resembles wakefullness; Distinct Eye movement; Learning, thinking and organizing part of the brain are stimulated; Acetycholine and dopamine are increased; You have detailed dreams
Loss of NREM sleep can cause what
Physiologic disturbances; Immunosupression; slow tissue repair; Lower pain tolerance; Profound fatigue; Increased infections
Loss of REM sleep can cause what
psychological distrubances such as apathy, depression, irritability, confussion, disorientation, hallucination, imparied memory, parania
Chronic sleep loss increase risk of what disease process
hypertension, diabetes, obestiy, depression, heart attacks strokes
Characteristics of NREM
Occurs when activity ofRAS is inhibited; 75-80% of your sleep is spent here; Has 4 stages; Pulse,B/P, Cardiac outpu all decrease, sketetal muscles relax, BMR decreases; Growth hormones increase; Intracranial pressure decreases
What is the definition of sleep
an altered stae of consciousness in which a persons perception and reaction to the enviroment is decreased
What are the characteristics of sleep
mimimal physical activity; variable levels of consciousness; changing in the bodys physio proceses; Decreased response to external stimuli; Selective response to outside stimuli; Decrease perception of things around you
What is the definition of resting
You are very aware but you are slowed down
Explain the effect of the 24 hour sleep-wake cycle in biological function
the cycle is controlled from within the body and sychronized with the enviromnetal factors such as light and darkness; Body temp, B/P, and other physio function follow the cycle
What is sleep apnea
Frequesnt short breathing pauses (>10 seconds) during sleep, may include loud snoring, frequent awakening; morning headackes, irratabilty. Can cause rise in B/P and cardiac arrest or arythmias there are 3 types: Obstructive, Central and Mixed
What are sleep terrors
It looks like the person is awake but they are in deep sleep and are active; the person does not recall the actions
What is bruxism and what stage of sleep does it occur
Clenching or grinding teeth; occurs in stage 2 of Nrem sleep; can lead to deteration of the TMJ joint causeing TMJ syndrome
What is Enuresis
bed wetting that occurs 2-3 hours after going to bed; occurs during deep sleep (3-4)
What is PLM and RLS
PLM - periodic limb movement; Legs jerk 2-3 times per minute during sleep; Most common in elders; RLS occrs during rest (before sleep)
What is sleep talking and when does it occur
occurs during NREM sleep before REM, rarely a problem for the person but can be for others
What is sommonbulism
Sleep walking; Occurs in stage 3 a nd 4 NREM. usually occurs 1-2 hours after falling asleep; sleep walkers tend to not notice dangers a nd meed to be protected Somma(sleep) ambul(move)ism(syndrome)
What is sleep
an active inhibitory process; a complex biological process that enhances daytime functioning; a basic human need required in order to cope with stresses; vital for optimual psyco and physio functioning; needed for healing of damaged tissue
What should a nurse use to assess a clients sleep patterns
Sleep hx, Health hx Physical exam Sleep diary Diagnostic studies
What is somnology
the study of sleep
what is Polysommography
Several test that are perfomed on a client when they are sleeping and not aware of the testing. All test a recored at the same time to measure sleep disorders
what is a EEG
an Electroenephalgram = measures brain waves
what is a EMG
Electromylogram = meaures muscle movment
What is EOG
Electrooculogram = meaurse eye movement
What test are used ind a polysommography
EEG,EMG, EOG , RR, 02 saturation, Pulse, HR Light sensitive cells measure the light effect on sleeping
What is sleep arcitecture
the basic organization of normal sleep (nrem1-2-3-4 and REM) Orgainisedi into 2 types REM and NREM