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15 Cards in this Set

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Pathologic conditions
urine process
1.diabetes – increase urine production
2.diseases that impair blood flow to kidneys (heart disease, HTN, stones) – decrease urine production
3.diseases of the kidneys themselves – reduced renal function – any process that impairs excretion (prostatic hypertrophy – below bladder). Febrile conditions may decrease urine production
Medications
urine process
– many medications affect the normal urine process and may cause retention or diuresis (ie: piridium - turns urine red)
Surgical / Diagnostic procedures
urine process
1.spinal anesthesia – decreases awareness of the need to void
2.surgery or cystoscopy on parts of the urinary tract or structures close to it – post-op bleeding or swelling which can affect the passage of urine
(Koziers p 1258 – 1260)
Describe the characteristics of normal urine
·color – straw or amber colored. Some food or drubs may change the color. Concentrated urine is darker (more likely concentrated in am).Dilute urine is lighter.
·Odor– faint aromatic odor (very subjective).Some foods may cause change. Infection
·Turbidity(clarity)– clear, transparent.Cooudiness d/t presence of WBC’s, RBC’s, bacteria (p 3)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:

acetone(ketone bodies)
= 0 It’s the end product of the breakdown of fatty acids. May be present with dehydration or if large amounts of ASA ingested.
May also be found in diabetes, under certain circumstances. (p 3)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
albumin (protein)
= 0 Increase in kidney dysfunction in clients with diabetes.Early screening for kidney damage in diabetics. May also be increased after exercise, stress, or consuming lots of high protein foods. (p 3)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
pH
= 4.5pH – 8.0pH Measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in the urine.
*(arterial blood pH=7.35–7.45)
--High protein foods and cranberry juice = acidic urine (low pH).
-Citrus fruits = alkaline urin (high pH)
(p 3)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
red blood cells (RBC)
= 0 may be present in kidney disease, UTI (urinary tract infection), kidney stones or trauma. In females is + when menstruating (p 4)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
white blood cells (WBC)
= 0 to 5 May be caused by infection or inflammation
(p 4)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
glucose
= 0 May occur with ingestion of large amounts of sugar or in clients with diabetes (p 4)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
casts
= 0 Compressed protein / cells / debris formed in the kidney tubules.Occurs in the presence of kidney disease (p 4)
State the normal values for the following components of a urinalysis:
specific gravity
= 1.010 – 1.025
The degree of concentrated substance compared with an equal volume of water
Increase Concentration =
Dehydration
Decrease Concentration = Dilute urine(overhydration) (p 4)
State the normal values for other constituents/components of a urinalysis:
– major = water (96%)
- other = urea, creatinine, ammonia, Cl-, Na++
(p 4)
Identify information to be collected during a nursing history when assessing the client’s ability to meet the need for urinary elimination.
·Voiding Patterns – any changes in pattern
·Description of urine and any changes
·Urinary elimination problems
·Factors influencing urinary elimination
medications,fluid intake
environmental factors, stress,
disease,diagnostic procedures
Identify health promotion techniques in relation to urinary elimination
·Promote fluid intake (2,000 ml/day is adequate for most adults)
·Maintain normal voiding patterns (positioning, relaxation, timing, privacy)
·Assist with toileting PRN
·Running water
·Apply gentle pressure over the bladder
·Possible medications depending on cause
-Parasympathomimetic agents (urecholine)
Alpha ( ?) (hytrin)
-Antispasmodic/anticholinergic agents (ditropan)
·catheterization as a last resort (p 6)