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62 Cards in this Set

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abiotic factor
physucal, or nonliving, factor tat shapes an ecosystem
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) un solution
acid rain
rain containing nitric and sulfuric acids
active transport
ebergy-requiring process that moves materal across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
adaptation
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
aerobic
process that requires oxygen
amino acid
compound with an amio group (-NH2) on on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on th other end
anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen
asexual reproduction
process by which a single arent reproduces by itself
atom
basic unit of matter
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions
(OH+) in solution
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compunds, and other forms of matter are passed form one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
biology
science that seeks to understand the livin world
biome
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and domiant commuities
biosphere
part of earth in which life ecxists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
biotic factor
biolagical influence on organisms within an ecosystem
buffer
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharo, sudden changes in ph
Calvin cycle
reactions of potosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build highenergy compounds such as sugars
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a given enviroment can support
cell
colletion of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundig; basic unit of all forms of life
cell specialization
separate roles for each type of cell in mulitcellula organisms
cell theory
indea that all living things ar composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from exsting cells
cell wall
strong suporrting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae,and some bacteria
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
centriole
one of two tiny srructures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nnuclear envelope
chemical reaction
process thatchanges one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
chemosynthesis
process by witch come oraganiss, such as certain bacteria , use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
chlorophyll
pruncupal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; captures light energy
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that capture the energy from sun light and converts it tion chemical energy
chromatin
granual materical visible within the nucleus; consitst of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
commenslism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the associtation benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
community
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definte prorprtions
compound light microscope
microscope that allows light tp pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
consumer
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
covalent bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane-not including the nuceuls
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
decomposer
organism that breaks down and obtains energy frp, dead organic matter
diffusion
process by witch molecules tend to move form an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrted
econlogical pyramid
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within wach trophic levl in a food chain or food web
ecological succession
gardual change in living communities that follows a dusturbance
ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their monliving environment
electron transport chain
a seies of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Kerbs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
endoplasmic reticulum
interanal membrane system in cells in which lipid componets of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
exoinential growth
growt pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
facilitated diffusion
movment of specific moecule aross cell membrane through protein channels
fat
lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in th body
fermentaion
process bu which cells release energy in the avsence of oxygen
food chain
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food vacuole
small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food
food web
network of complex interations formed by th feeding relationships among the variou organisms in a ecosystem
glycolysis
1st step in releasing the energy of glucose, un which a molecule of flucose is broken into 2 molecule of pyruvic acid
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
greenhouse effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
habitat
the area where an organism lives, including the biotic ans abiotic factors that affect it
heterotoph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; aslo called a consumer