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112 Cards in this Set

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Give the definition for the following term:

Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
Give the definition for the following term:

Nucleus
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA
Give the definition for the following term:

Vacuole
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell
Give the definition for the following term:

Ectoplasm
The thin, watery cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells
Give the definition for the following term:

Endoplasm
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells
Give the definition for the following term:

Flagellate
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum
Give the definition for the following term:

Pellicle
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane
Give the definition for the following term:

Chloroplast
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Give the definition for the following term:

Chlorophyll
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis
Give the definition for the following term:

Eyespot
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
Give the definition for the following term:

Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
Give the definition for the following term:

Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
Give the definition for the following term:

Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Give the definition for the following term:

Mutualism
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association
Give the definition for the following term:

Commensalism
A relationship between 2 organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
Give the definition for the following term:

Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Give the definition for the following term:

Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
Give the definition for the following term:

Spore
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating
Give the definition for the following term:

Plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water
Give the definition for the following term:

Zooplankton
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa
Give the definition for the following term:

Phytoplankton
Tiny floating photosynthetic organism, primarily algae
Give the definition for the following term:

Thallus
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems
Give the definition for the following term:

Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Give the definition for the following term:

Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
Give the definition for the following term:

Holdfast
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself
Give the definition for the following term:

Sessile Colony
A colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object
Give definitions for the following terms:

Sessile colony
A colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object
Which of the following genera contain organisms with chlorplasts?

Amoeba
Euglena
Paramecium
Spirogyra
Euglena and Spirogyra
Each of these organisms use chlorophyll for photosynthesis and thus have chloroplasts.

The other two genera contain exclusively heterotrophic organisms, which obviously do not use photosynthesis.
What is the function of a contractile vacuole? What is the difference between this and a food vacuole?
A contractile vacuole collects excess water in a cell and releases it into the surroundings to reduce pressure inside the cell.

This keeps the cell from exploding.

The food vacuole, on the other hand stores food while it is being digested and has nothing to do with excess water or pressure.
What is the difference between endoplasm and ectoplasm?
Endoplasm is thick, while ectoplasm is thin and waterery.
Endoplasm is found in the central region of the cell, while ectoplasm is found near the plasma membrane.
Where is endoplasm found?
In the central region of the cell.
Where is ectoplasm found?
Near the plasma membrane.
The amoeba and euglena each have different means of locomotion. How are they different? How are the similar?
The amoeba uses pseudopods which it creates by deforming its body.

The euglena, on the other hand uses a flagelllum.

There is one bit of similarity:

When it wants to move quickly, the euglena deforms its body in an almost earthworm-type motion.
This is used to enhance the motion supplied by the flagellum, and is something like the amoeba's motion
Name at least 3 pathogenic organisms from kingdom Protista.
There are more than 3...

Entamoeba histolytica
Trypanosoma
Balantidium coli
Plasmodium
Toxoplasma
For each of the phyla below, list the means of locomotion employed by the organisms in that phyla:

Sarcodina
Mastigophora
Ciliophora
Sarcodina - Pseudopods

Mastigophora - Flagella

Ciliophora - Cilia
What are the main features that separate organisms into phylum Sporozoa?
These organisms form spores as a natural party of their life cycle and have no real means of locomotion.
A tapeworm is a parasite that feeds on the nutrients which the host eats, depriving the host of that nutrition. Trichonympha is a mastigophorite that lives in the gut of a termite, helping break down chemicals that the termite cannot break down on its own. Name the specific kind of symbiosis in each of these situations.
Trichonympha is an example of mutualism, because both the Trichonympha and the termite benefit from the situation.

The tapeworm is an example of parasitism, since only the tapeworm benefits.

The host is hurt by the situation.
Why do the ciliates have two nuclei? What is the purpose of each?
Ciliates require so much energy that they must have a nucleus (called the macronucleus) devoted solely to metabolism.

The other, smaller nucleus (micronucleus) controls reproduction.
What is the difference between the conjugation that occurs between paramecia and the conjugation that occurs between bacteria?
in conjugation between paramecia, there is a mutual exchange of DNA so that each paramecium gets new DNA.
We learned in Module 2 that when bacteria conjugate, only one bacterium (the recipient) gets new DNA.
Two microorganism groups are studied. In the first group, the organisms form hard shells around themselves when exposed to life-threatening conditions. If not exposed to those conditions, however, these organisms never form hard shells.

The second group form hard shells around themselves as a natural part of their life cycle.

Which group would be classified as coming from phylum Sporozoa?
Spores are formed as a natural part of an organism's lifestyle. Cysts, however, are only formed in the case of life-threatening conditions. If those conditions do not exist, cysts will not be formed. Thus, the first group produced cysts.

The second group produced spores, making them a part of phylum Sporozoa.
What is unique about the way a euglena obtains food?
A euglena can either live on the dead remains of other organisms or it can produce its own food by photosynthesis.

This combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic behavior is rather unique in God's creation.
Which phylum contains the organisms responsible for most of the photosynthesis that occurs on earth? What generic term is used to refer to these organisms?
Phylum Chrysophyta contains the diatoms, which are responsible for most of the world's photosynthesis
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

FOOD VACUOLE
purpose :
store food

phyla:
Sarcodina
Mastigophora
Ciliophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

CONTRACTILE VACUOLE
purpose:
remove excess water
reducing pressure

phyla:
Sarcodina
Mastigophora
Ciliophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

FLAGELLUM
purpose:
locomotion

phylum:
Chlorophyta or
Mastigophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

PELLICLE
purpose:
retains cell shape

phyla:
Mastigophora
Ciliophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

CHLOROPLAST
purpose:
stores chlorophyll

phylum:
Chlorophyta
Mastigophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

EYESPOT
purpose:
detects light

phylum:
Mastigophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

CILIA
purpose:
locomotion

phylum:
Ciliophora
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

NUCLEUS
purpose:
contains DNA

phyla:
all phyla in Protista
Give the main function of the organelle:
Name 1 phylum that has organisms which possess the organelle

ORAL GROOVE
purpose:
food intake and conjugation

phylum:
Ciliophora
What are large deposits of diatom remains called? List 2 uses of these deposits.
These deposits are called diatomaceous earth and are used as abrasives and filters
What is a red tide?
An algae bloom of dinoflagellates, which belong to phylum Pyrrophyta
What 2 phyla principally contain macroscopic algae?
Phaeophyta
Rhodophyta
What substance produced by members of phylum Phaeophyta is useful for thickening ice cream, pudding, salad dressing and jelly beans?
Members of phylum Phaeophyta have alginic acid (or just algin) in their cell walls. This is the thickening agent used in the foods listed.
Suppose you were observing an amoeba under the microscope and it suddenly exploded. What organelle was probably not working properly in the amoeba?
Since the contractile vacuoles control pressure in the cell by collecting and removing excess water, those organelles must not have been working in that poor amoeba.
A biologist is studying an amoeba and sees a vacuole with several small solid objects in it. Most likely, what kind of vacuole is it?
The biologist must be looking at a food vacuole.

A contractile vacuole should contain water.

The solid objects in this vacuole are most likely partly-digested food.
A euglena is in dim light. There is a bright spot of light not too far away, but the euglena does not move towards it.

Instead, it seems to wander aimlessly. What organelle is not functioning properly in the euglena?
Since it is wandering around, its flagellum is working fine. Since it can't find the light, however, its eyespot must not be working.

NOTE: Even if the photosynthetic mechanism of the euglena is destroyed, it will continue to seek light as long as the eyespot is working.
According to most biologists, an organism must always perform photosynthesis or chemosynthesis to be considered autotrophic. Why do these biologists say that the euglena is not autotrophic?
Euglenas can obtain food either autotrophically (by photosynthesis) or heterotrophically, depending on environmental conditions. Thus, it does not always perform photosynthesis.
In a later section of this module, you will learn about members of genus Plasmodium, which can live in people. These microorganisms get food and shelter from the people they inhabit, but they cause malaria, which can be deadly. Is this an example of symbiosis? If so, what kind.
This is symbiosis, because the organism from genus Plasmodium benefits.

It is also parasitism, since the person that the microorganism inhabits is harmed.
What is the difference between cysts (such as those formed by amoebae and ciliates) and spores?
Spores are formed as a natural part of an organism's life.

An organism that produces spores will always produce spores as a part of its life cycled.

Cysts, on the other hand, are formed only when life-threatening conditions occur.

If no life-threatening conditions occur over the course of an organism's lifetime, it will never for a cyst.
One way that people fight the spread of malaria is to significantly reduce the population of mosquitoes in their vicinity. Why does this work?
Mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium and spread it by biting humans. Control the mosquito population, and the spread of the disease is controlled as well.
If an organism is in phylum Chlorophyta, it must have a chloroplast. Why?
Chloroplasts hold the chlorophyll that is a part of photosynthesis.

Since all members of phylum Chlorophyta have chlorophyll, they must also have chloroplasts to hold it.
Of the 3 genera of green algae discussed above, which would you consider the most complex?
Spirogyra are the most complex because they exist as colonies. Thus, to a very limited degree, the cells work together.

The other two exist as individual cells.

At any time you get a group of individuals to work together (even to a very small degree), you are adding complexity to the picture.
Define the following term:

Thallus
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems
Define the following term:

Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits
Define the following term:

Vacuole
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell
If an organism from kingdom Protista is heterotrophic, what subkingdom is it most likely in?
It is most likely in subkingdom Protozoa, since subkingdom Algae holds autotrophic organisms
What phylum produces organisms whose remains are used as an abrasive in toothpaste? What is the generic name given to these organisms?
These organisms come from phylum Chrysophyta and are commonly called diatoms
Some forms of algae have a chemical that can be used as a thickening agent in many consumer products, What is this chemical and in what phylum do these algae belong?
The chemical is alginic acid (algin), and it comes from members of phylum Phaeophyta
What phylum contains organisms that must have two nuclei. What are these nuclei called, and what is the function of each?
Members of phylum Ciliophora have two nuclei, the macronucleus and the micronucleus.

The MACRONUCLEUS controls the organism's metabolism, while

the MICRONUCLEUS controls reproduction.
Name one organism in kingdom Protista that is pathogenic. Name the malady that this organism causes.
There are several:

Entamoeba histolytica causes DYSENTERY

Trypanosoma causes AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS

Balantidium coli causes DYSENTERY

Plasmodium causes MALARIA

Toxoplasma causes TOXOPLASMOSIS
If all diatoms were to suddenly go extinct, what would happen to the earth's atmosphere?
The oxygen supply in the atmosphere would dwindle away, because diatoms perform a large amount of the photosynthesis which replaces the oxygen that most organisms use.
An organism forms a hard shell around itself in response to life-threatening conditions. If those life-threatening conditions had not occurred, it never would have behaved in such a way. Is this organism from phylum Sporozoa? Why or why not?
It is not from phylum Sporozoa because members of this phylum form spores as a natural part of their life cycle. Whether or not conditions are threatening does not influence the production of spores in this phylum.
Two samples of cytoplasm from an amoeba are studied. The first is thin and watery, while the second is thick. Which sample was taken near the plasma membrane, and which was taken form the center of the amoeba?
The first was taken near the plasma membrane because ectoplasm is thin and watery and near the plasma membrane.

The second was taken near the center of the amoeba because endoplasm is thicker and nearer to the center of the amoeba.
An organism from phylum Mastigophora cannot move. What organelle is not functioning?
Since members of phylum Mastigophora use flagella to move, the flagellum must not be working
An organism from phylum Ciliophora has no place to store its food once it intakes the food. What organelle is it missing?
It is missing a food vacuole, as that is where food is stored.

Gullet is also acceptable.
If an organism in sub-kingdom algae has chlorophyll, what organelle must it also have?
It must have a chloroplast in which to store the chlorophyll.
Even though kingdom Protista is mostly known for its single-celled creatures, there are two phyla that contain multicellular organisms. What phyla are they?
The multicellular algae are mostly found in phylum Phaeophyta and phylum Rhodophyta
Kingdom Protista is divided into two main groups: _______(mostly individual, single-celled creatures with a form of locomotion) and ________(mostly colonies of eukaryotic cells that have no form of locomotion).
Protozoa
algae
Protozoa are split into four major phyla based on their locomotion: Mastigophora contains those that use________. Sarcodina contains those that use_________. Ciliophora contains those that use________, and Sporozoa contains those that have___________.
Flagella
Pseudopods
Cilia
no means of locomotion
Algae are split into 5 major phyla based on habitat, organization, and cell wall. Chlorophyta contains those that live in__________, are composed of__________, and have cell walls made of__________.
fresh water
single cells
cellulose
Chrysophyta contains those that live in_____________________, are composed of___________, and have cell walls made of _______________.
fresh water and marine waters
single cells
silicon dioxide
Pyrrophyta contains those that live in__________, are composed of__________, and have cell walls made of ___________or________________.
marine waters
single cells
cellulose
something atypical
Phaeophyta contains those that live in______________, are composed of ______________,and have cell walls made of_______________.
cold marine waters
multiple cells
cellulose and alginic acid
Rhodophyta contains those that live in______________, are composed of___________, and have cell walls made of___________.
warm marine waters
multiple cells
cellulose
Algae are split into 5 major phyla based on habitat, organization, and cell wall. Chlorophyta contains those that live in________, are composed of___________, and have cell walls made of__________.
fresh water
single cells
cellulose
Chrysophyta contains those that live in______________, are composed of_________, and have cell walls made of__________.
fresh water and marine waters
single cells
silicon dioxide
Pyrrophyta contains those that live in________, are composed of________, and have cell walls made of _______or_________.
marine waters
single cells
cellulose
something atypical
Phaeophyta contains those that live in_________, are composed of___________, and have cell walls made of______________.
cold marine waters
multiple cells
cellulose and alginic acid
Rhodophyta contains those that live in____________, are composed of____________, and have cell walls made of____________.
warm marine waters
multiple cells
cellulose
The main portion of a cell’s DNA is stored in its__________. Membrane-bounded “sacs” in a cell are called_______. Two main types of vacuoles are___________, which store food, and________, which regulate the amount of water in the cell.
Nucleus
vacuoles
food vacuoles
contractile vacuoles
The cytoplasm in a cell can be split into_________, which is thin and watery, and_______, which is more dense.
Ectoplasm
Endoplasm
_____________is a typical member of phylum_______, and it can form _______to survive extreme conditions.
Amoeba proteus
Sarcodina
Cysts
Genus Euglena contains organisms from phylum___________. When it comes to food, these creatures are both __________and________. They have firm but flexible shape-sustaining __________and a light-sensitive region known as an______.
Mastigophora
Heterotrophic
autotrophic
pellicles
eyespot
Photosynthesis requires a pigment called_______, which cells store in________.
chlorophyll
chloroplasts
Round, green colonies found in phylum Mastigophora are found in genus________.
Volvos
When organisms form a relationship in which at least one of them benefits, it is called_______. If all organisms involved benefit, it is specifically known as_________. If one benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed, it is specifically known as_________. If one benefits and the other is harmed, it is specifically known as.
Symbiosis
Mutualism
Commensalisms
parasitism
Genus Paramecium contains organisms from phylum________. Organisms in this genus have two________. The _________is larger of the two, and it controls metabolism, while the __________is the smaller of the two, and it controls reproduction.
Ciliophora
Nuclei
macronucleus
micronucleus
Paramecia can exchange DNA through________, but unlike this process in bacteria, the DNA exchange is_______.
Conjugation
mutual
Genus Plasmodium contains organisms from phylum ________that cause_________. The organisms are transferred between people by the action of___________.
Sporozoa
Malaria
mosquitoes
Members of phylum Sporozoa form as a part of their normal life cycle.
spores
Tiny organisms that float in the water are called______. Small animals and protozoa are called_________, while photosynthetic organisms (typically algae) are called_________.
Plankton
Zooplankton
phytoplankton
When conditions are ideal, algae will reproduce so rapidly that they essentially ‘take over’ their habitat. This is referred to as an__________.
algal bloom
Members of phylum Chlorophyta have the pigment _________and are often called_______________.
chlorophyll
green algae
______________is a compound made of certain types of sugars that is common in many cell walls.
Cellulose
The members of phylum Chrysophyta are often called _______and are responsible for a large amount of the photosynthesis that occurs in creation. When the cell wall remains of many of these organisms clump together, they form a crumbly, abrasive substance called_____________.
Diatoms
diatomaceous earth
A _____________is a colony that does not move and anchors itself to an object with a________.
sessile colony
holdfast
Members of phylum Pyrrophyta are often referred to as______. They have two_______. One species in this phylum Gymnodinium brevis, have blooms that are called________.
Dinoflagellates
Flagella
red tides
Members of phylum Phaeophyta are often referred to as________. Their cell walls contain ____________that is used as a thickening agent.
brown algae
alginic acid (algin)
Members of genus _____________in phylum Phaeophyta are often called ___________or________. They form ________that allow them to anchor themselves to rocks which sit at the bottom of the ocean. Some can grow as long as 100 meters.
Macrocytis
Kelp
Seaweed
holdfasts
Members of phylum Rhodophyta are often called________.
red algae