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25 Cards in this Set

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Kinematics
Forces applied to the body which produce, change, &/Or stop motion
Internal Kinematics
-Tension created by the muscles, tendons & ligaments on bone
External Kinematics
-Gravity, segmental mass, free weights, manual resistance equipment
Kinetics - Statics
-The study of factors associated with non-moving systems
-Determining forces which act on a body at rest
-Equilibrium
Kinetics - Dynamincs
-Forces associated with systems in motion
-Object under the action of unbalanced forces
Osteokinematics
Motion of the bones relative to the three cardinal planes
Cardinal Planes
Sagittal Plane - L/R
Frontal/Coronal - Front/Back
Horizontal/Transverse - Top/Bottom
Center of Gravity
Where all three cardinal planes intersect
Axis of Rotation
-Point around which movement occurs
-Plane of movement is perpendicular to axis of rotation
-Axis is typically found on the convex bone
Synarthrosis
Structure
-Immovable, no true joint cavity, dense irregular connective tissue
Function
-Bind bones together, transmit forces from bone to bone, disperse forces over large area
Synarthrosis - Types
Suture - Skull
Gomphosis - Tooth
Syndesmosis - Distal tibiofibular joint; interosseus membranes
Amphiarthrosis
Structure
-Slightly movable, no true joint cavity, fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
Function
-Restrained movement, transmit forces to bone
Amphiarthrosis - Types
Symphysis - intervertebral joints ; symphysis pubis
Synchondrosis - 1st sternocostal joint
Diarthrosis
Structure
-Freely movable, true joint cavity
Function
-Movement
Elements of a Diarthroidial Joint
Synovial Fluid
Articular Cartilage
Articular Capsule - Stratum Fibrosum
Synovial Membrane - Stratum Synovium
Capsular Ligaments
Blood Vessels
Sensory Nerves
Degrees of Freedom for a Synovial Joint
# of independent movements allowed
-# of coordinates necessary to specify the position of object in space
-# of planes in which joint segments move
-# of primary axes of a joint
Arthrokinematics
-Passive translations that occur in most joints
-Defined in three directions
Anterior/Posterior, Medial/Lateral, Superior/Inferior
Kinematic Chains
A series of links in which the function of one has consequences on all other links by virtue of thier connections
OKC
Open Kinematic Chain
-Distal segment of the chain is not fixed
-Not stereotypical, no particular pattern
CKC
Closed Kinematic Chain
-Distal segment of chain is fixed
-Predictable
Closed Packed Position
Maximum Bone Contact, Taut Ligaments
Position of Maximum Congruence Between Bones
Loose Packed Position
Little bone contact
Lax Ligaments - Great accessory mobility
Resting Position
Maximum Loose Packed
Maximum Accessory Mobility
Types of Motion
Rotatory - Spin
Translatory - Glide/Slide
Curvilinear - Roll
Convex - Concave Rule
-If the CONVEX BONE is stable and the CONCAVE BONE is moved, then the concave surfaces will move in the same direction as the distal end of the extremity
-If the CONCAVE BONE is stable and the CONVEX BONE is moved, then the convex surface moves in a direction opposite to the bone segment