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174 Cards in this Set

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Strength
the ability of muscles to exert an external force or to lift heavy weight
muscular endurance
the ability of muscles to repeatedly exert themselves
coordination
the ability to use the senses with the body parts to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately
flexibility
the range of motion available in a joint
skill related aspect of physical fitness
agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed
health related components of physical fitness
body composition, cardiovascualr fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, strength
wellness
a sense of well being
physical fitness
the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively
metabolic fitness
is a state of being associated with lower risk of many chronic health problems, lower fat levels in the blood, and better regulation of blood sugar
lifestyles
the development of a system that allows a person to positively perceive the self is important, encourages self perceptio
heat exhaustion
the body overheats as a result of too much activity and hot enviroment - poor hydration
heat stroke
the most severe form of heat exhaustion
clothes for hot and humid weather
light and light colored
cross training
bunch of different training
threshold of training
lower level of activity
principle of progression
gradual systematic overload
principle of overload
basis for improving fitness
principle of speceficity
train for one certain activity or specific results (opposite of cross training)
FIT
a formula used to describe the F-frequency I- Intensity T- lenth of Time for physical activity to produce benefits
principle of diminishing returns
a corollary of the overload principle indicating that the more benefits you gain as a result of activity, the harder additional benefits are to acheive
health benefits
a result of physical activity that provides protection from hypo kinetic disease or early death
performance benefits
a result of physical activity that improves physical fitness and physical performance capabilities
coronary collateral circulation
extra blood vessels that heart fitness creates
arteriosclerosis
general condition, hardening of arteries
atherosclerosis
deposit of materials along arteries walls
hemoglobin
oxygen carrying part of blood in red blood cells
hypo kinetic
too little activity
angina pectoris
chest or arm pain down the shoulder preludes to heart attack
coronay occlusion
blocking of coronary blood vessels
coronary thrombosis
a clot breaks off wall and blocks arteries - formation of a clot that blocks a coronary artery
cardiovascualr fitness
the shape that your heart is in
anemia
lack of hemoglobin
HDL
high density lipoprotein good cholesterol reduction in risk of heart disease - beneficial protein in the blood stream
LDL
low density lipoprotein bad cholesterol
lipids
blood fats
sympathetic nervous system
speeds up heart rate (if you are not in shape)
parasympathetic nervous system
slows down heart rate (if you are in shape)
triglycerides
type of blood fat
fibrin
helps in blood clost sticky fibers help attach cholesterol to walls
lipoprotein
protein that carries fat in blood
systolic blood pressure
the upper number in blood pressure
diastolic clood pressure
the second number
osteoperosis
lose bone density (in older women)
cardiovascular disease
a disease of the heart, a broad classification of diseases of the heart and blood vessels that include CHD as awell as high blood pressure, stroke, and perpheral vascular disease
coronary heart disease
CHD disease of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply the body it with oxygen, including heart attack
anaerobic exercise
short all out high intensity high energy burst - uses high energy fuel supply
maximal oxygen uptake test
vo2 max test best condition test cardio
aerobic activity
long episodes of low intensity conditioning
know the difference between the health related components of fitness and skill related components of fitness and the importance of each
health related components- reduce the risks; they are the long run of things keeping your body in shape for you own things like aerobic activity are good for this

Skill related - anaerobic components wjaere you train at certain things to improve your skills in a certain sport or area of your life; activity to stay fit
How many total components of fitness are listed by our text?
11
Which component of fitness is generally regarded as the most important for health?
cardiovascular fitness
Since the year 1900, life expectancy has increased from ___ years to ___years.
47, 77; 29 year increase over 50%
The surgeons general report says how much percentage of American's exercise daily?
24%
What is the most severe form of heat problem?
heat stroke
What is the best advice to relieve muscle cramping due to exercise?
slow static stretching
What is the best advice for fluid replacement when exercising?
to drink water before, during, and after the exercise
What components of exercise should warm-ups emphasize?
cardiovascular (or circulation) and flexibility
What characteristics of exercise clothing are most appropriate for hot and humid weather?
light and light colored
The resting heart rate will _______, reflecting a postitive training adaptation
decrease
What improves coronary collateral circulation?
exercise
What is the relationship between high blood pressure and stroke?
people with high blood pressure are susceptible to strokes
How do you know the target zone for cardiovascular exercise intensity?
based on percentage of estimated working heart rate
How do you estimate maximal heart rate?
subtract your age fro,m 220
What is the best test for cardiovascular fitness?
maximum oxygen uptake test
What is the sequence of blood flo?
arteries - capillaries - vines
What are the characteristics of a fit heart?
increase strokes volume continuous work
Why are women more sedentary than men?
less women exercise
How should minor injuries like muscle sprains and strains be treated?
RICE - rest, ice, compression, elevation to reduce swelling
What is flexibilty influenced by?
age, sex, race
Facts about stretching methods
Types:
Static stretch, neuromuscular facilitiation exercise and ballistic stretch

Static strecth: less likely to cause injury--done slowly and held for several seconds (low likely hood of tearing soft muscle) --Active Assistance: contract opposing muscle group to get reflex relaxation in muscles you are stretching--almost impossible to produce adequate overload by simply contacting those opposing muscles; passive assisstance: there is a prtner that aides your stretching, no relaxation in the muscles that associate with the stretch-- it is best to have both passive and active assistance so that you have the muscle relaxing but there is also sufficient force to overload it

PNF - most effective for improving fleibility, popular for rehab since the '60s, has many techniques to stimulate muscles to contract more strongly or to relax more fully so that they can be stretched; contract-relax-antagonist-contract technique is most pop. 3 steps: 1) move the limb so the muscle to be stretched is elongated initially then contract it isometrically for several seconds 2) relax the muscle 3) immediately statically stretch the muscle with the active assisstance of the antagonist muscle and an assist from a partner, gravity or other body part

Ballistic stretching is not recommended for most : momentum to produce the stretch, that momentum is produced by vigourous motion. Like static, it can be done actively or passively. That forceful movement can cause injury which is why it is not really heralded: there is a lack of control over the force and range of motion-- experts tell people to do synamic stretching instead: gradual and controlled movements up to the limit of the joints range of motion
antagonist muscle
in this concept, agnostic refers to the muscle group on the opposite side of the limb from the muscle group being stretched (i.e. biceps is agtagnostic of triceps)
agonist muscle
muscle group being stretched
ballistic stretch
muscles are stretched by the force of momentum of a body part that is bounced, swung, or jerked
flexibility
measure of the range of motion available at a joint or group of joints. Determined by the shape of bones and cartilidge in the joint and by the length and extensibility of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and fascia that cross the joint
ligaments
bands of tissue that connect bones. Unlike muscles and tendons, overstretching ligaments is not desirable
passive assisstance
stretch imposed on a muscle with the assistance of a force other than the opposing muscle
active assistance
an assist to stretch from an active contraction of the opposing (antagonist) muscle
PNF stretch
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercise - a type of static stretch most commonly characterized by a precontraction of the muscle to be stretched and a contraction of the antagonist muscle during the stretch
Static Stretch
a muscle is slowly stretched, then held in that stretched position for several seconds
Range of Motion
Exercises used to maintain existing joint mobility (to prevent loss of ROM)
Anabolic Steriod
synthetic steriods similar to the male sex hormone testosterone. They functio androgenically to stimulate male characteristics and anabolically to increase muscle mass, weight, bone maturation, and virility
Concentric Contraction
isotonic muscle contractions in which the muscle gets shorter as it contracts, such as when a joint is bent and two body parts move closer together
eccentric contraction
isotonic muscle contractions in which the muscle gets longer as it contracts - that is, when a weight is gradually lowered and teh contracting muscle gets longer as it gives up tension. eccentric contractions are also called negative exercise
hypertropy
increase in the size of muscles as a result of strength training; increase in bulk
isokinetic contraction
exercises done with a machine that regulates movement velocity and resistance
isometric contraction
type of muscle contraction in which the muscle remains the same length. Also known as static contraction
isotonic concentration
type of muscle conctraction in which the muscle changes length, either shortening (concentrically) or lengthening (eccentrically)
calorie
unit of energy supplied by foods; the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree (actually a kilocalorie, but usually called a calorie for weight control purposes)
caloric balance
consuming calories in amounts equal to the number of calories expended
diet
the usual food and drink for a person or animal
essential fat
the minimum amount of fat in the body necessary for maintain healthful living
MET
multiples of the amount of energy expended at rest
non-essential fat
extra fat or fat reserves stored in the body
obesity
extreme overfatness
overweight
weight in excess of normal; not harmful unless it is accompanied by overfatness
percent body fat
the percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowance - dietary guideline that specifies the amount of nutrient needed for almost all of the healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group
Body Mass Index
a measure of body composition using a height-weight formula. High BMI values have been related to increased disease risk
under fat
too little of the body weight composed of fat
Basal Metabolic Rate
your energy expenditure in a basic or rested state
Staurated/ Unsaturated Fat
Saturated : dietary fats that are usually solid at room temperature and come primarily from animal sources

Unsaturated Fats : monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats that are usually liquid at room temperature and come primarily from vegetable sources
amino acids
the twenty basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins
glycogen
a source of energy stored in the muscles and liver that is necessary for sustained physical activity
kyphosis
Kyphotic Curve - the normal outward curvature of the thoraic spine that is necessary for good posture nd body mechanics
Lordosis
Lordotic Curve - the normal inward curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine that is necessary for good posture and body mechanics
scoliosis
a lateral curvature with some rotation of the spine; the most serious and deforming of all postural deviations
somatotype
inherent body build; ectomorph (thin), mesomorph (muscular) and endomorph (fat)
What is a set?
A group of consecutive repetitions of a resistance exercise
What is isometric?
The type of muscle contraction in which the muscle length remains the same
What is flexibility?
The range of motion in a joint or group of joints
Are girls or boys usually more flexible?
girls
performing exercises for all major muscle groups
yes
Who would benefit most from ballistic stretching?
athletes
What kind of steroids, when used by athletes, may cause liver damage?
anabolic steroids
Are free weights considered to be isotonic?
yes
What is a lack of strength in abdominal muscles usually related to?
poor posture and potential back problems
What does muscle fitness improve?
bones, tendons, and muscle strength and endurance
Where are smooth muscles found?
In the digestive tract
What is stretching muscles using the antagonistic muscles called?
active stretching
What is static stretching?
slow, sustained muscle stretching exercises
Why are slow-twitch musle fibers resistant to fatigue?
Because they are aerobic
What is muscle endurance?
The capacity of a muscle to continue contracting over a period of time
What is concentric contraction?
The muscle contraction in which the length of the muscle decreases
To build strength and size the best Rx is 3 sets of 8-12 reps.
yes
What is strength?
The measure of the maximum amount of force that a muscle can exert
What do people who have tight hip flexors and weak abdominals often have?
lumbar lordosis
Lumbar lordosis is commonly called what?
swayback
What is the most frequently prescribed treatment for painful spines?
exercise
What is scoliosis?
a lateral bend and twist of the spine
What is lordosis?
excessive curve in the lower back
What can decrease the risk of chronic neck pain?
strong neck muscles
What are unsaturated fats at room temperature?
liquids
What are ergonic acids?
Nutritional supplements for improving performance
How many calories per day are the recommended allotments on food labelsw?
2000 or 2500 calories
How much of the total calories should CHO take up?
60%
What are complex CHO known as?
starches
A reduction of fat intke to no more than 25% of total calories is recommendated for a healthy diet
yes
Do vitamins provide energy for performance?
no
No more than what percentage of saturated fat is recommended in the diet for good health?
10%
Should complex CHO make up the bulk of your diet?
yes
What isn't needed by athletes with a balanced diet?
protein supplements
What is the recommended percentage of fat for women to be in the good fitness zone?
20 - 25%
What is the best way to control body fatness?
combining diet with exercise
What is the base of the Food Guide Pyramid?
grain products
What is obesity?
exreme overfatness
The most likely cause of "creeping obesity" is decreased exercise with age
true
What is obesity often a result of?
caloric imbalance
What is the maximum fat reduction for most people?
tow pounds a week
What is a caliper used to measure?
skinfolds
What has been linked to 50-70% of all illness?
stress
What is bulk food in the diet?
cellulose
What is essential fat?
the minimum amount of body fat necessary for good health
How many calories does a pound of body fat contain?
3500 calories
What is the most accurate method for measuring body fat?
underwater weighing
What is the recommended percentage of fat for men to be in the good fitness zone?
10-15%
What is thought to contribut to future problems with obesity?
an increased number of fat cells in babys
What causes creeping obesity?
people becoming gradually less active as they age and their BMR usually decreases with age. Although caloric intake decreases somewhat with age it doesn't compensate for the decrease in BMR and activity levels. So body fat gradually increases over time.
What does cellulose provide in the diet?
indigestible fiber
How many calories does 1 pound of fat contain?
3500
Why is overfatness in babies discouraged?
Because it may cause an increase in the number of fat cells
What is the best way to contol body fatness?
To combine diet modification with exercise
What is the target zone for fat loss?
No more than 2 pounds per week
What is used to measure skin folds?
a caliper
What percentage of fat should men and women have respectively to be in the "good fitness health zone"
Males: 10-20%

Females: 17-28%
Although vitamins do not provide energy what are they important for?
the manufactoring and rebuilding of cells
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fat and the percentage of total calories?
Saturated fats: dietary fats that are usually solids at room temperature and come primarily from animal sources

Unsaturated fats: monostaturated or polyunsaturated fats that are usually liquid at room temperature and come primarily from vegetable sources
Ergogenic aids
substances, strategies, and treatments that are intended to improve performancec in sports or competitive athletics
According to food labels, what is the recommended allotment for calorie intakes?
2000+ calories
What is the most prescribed treatment for back problems?
exercise
What is Lumbar Lordosis often caused by?
tight hip flexors and weak abdominal muscles
Where is smooth muscle tissue found?
in the walls of the esophagus, stomach and intestines
Know the characteristics of fast-twitch muscle fiber
white in color - produce energy in with anaerobic processes, generate greater tension than slow-twitch fiber, fatigue more quickly, well suited to fast, high-force activities
Know the characteristics of slow-twitch muscle fiber
red and well suited to produce energy with aerobic metabolism, generate less tension but more restistant to fatigue -- endurance training leads to the adaptation of slow twitch muscle fiber
Define muscular endurance
The ability of the muscle to exert themsleves repeatedly. A fit person can repeat movements for a long period without undue fatigue