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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are 3 biomechanical limitations?
ROM
Strength
endurance
what can cause an immobilized joint?
- loss of muscle fiber
-changes in number and length of sarcomeres
-changes in connective tissue
-disruption of articular cartilage
- tendons and ligaments lose strength in absense of motion and stress
how can someone prevent ROM limitations?
compression
positioning
movement through full ROM
this technique is used to prevent ROM limitations due to edema
- most effective when combined with positioning and PROM or AROM
- use of compression wraps
- use of spriral wrapping in a distal to proximal direction
-tubigrip provides graduated constant pressure support
compression
this technique is important if limb is too weak to resist gravity
- functional or resting position
- minimizes edema, prevents deformities and maintains ROM
- position in the opposite of noral patterns of tightness
-splinting is used to facilitate functional position
positioning
contractures of soft tissue that can be changed include:
- skin
- muscles
- tendons
- ligaments
contractures that can't be changed include..
bony changes
- longstanding contractures
- severe joint destruction
what are the goals of passive movement?
1 maintain/ regain normal ROM
2. prevent deformity/ contractures
3. improve joint lubrication
4. provide proprioceptive input
the following are goals of what?
- maintain/ regain normal ROM
- prevent deformity/ contractures
-improve joint lubrication
-provide proprioceptive input
-maintain/ improve strength
- provide stimulus for bone integrity
-increase circulation/ prevent thrombosis
AAROM
the following are goals for what?
- maintain/ regain normal ROM/ prevent contractures
- improve joint lubrication
- maintain or improve strength
- provide stimulus for bone integrity
- increase circulation and prevent thrombosis
-improve or maintain ADL
-increase and maintain endurance
-decrease pain
-improve and maintain respiratory function
AROM
the following are goals of what?
- maintain and improve strength
- increase muscle endurance
- increase power
-improve and maintain AD
-improve and maintain respiratory function
-improve body mechanics and prevent injurt
resistive exercise
motion of the part may interfere with healing
ex. unhealed fracture, unstable joint, unhealed suture, blood clot, unstable medical condition, medical lines
contraindications
tissue is lengthened by outside force
-eliminates tightness that could cuase a contracture
-should be completed to the point of maximal stretch
- force, speed, direction and extent of stretch must be controlled
stretching
while stretching, this must be high enough to put tension on the tissue but not so high to rupture the muscle
force
while stretching this should be slow to allow joint to adjust gradually
speed
while stretching this should be exact opposite to the tightness
direction
while stretching this should be a few degrees beyond the point of discomfort and held for 15-30 seconds
maximal stretch
type of stretching
- involvment in an interest/ purposeful activity
- clinet is more relaxed
- client is not anticipating pain
- client is motivated to complete task
-PNF patterns
-contract/ relax
active stretching
type of stretching
- manual stretching
-relaxing environment
-stabilize bone proximal and distal to the joint to be moved
-encourage the client to assist with movement
- hold position for 15-30 sec
- complete movement slowly
-overstretching can cause heterotopic ossification
passive stretching
10 RM (repetition maximum) = maximum weight a person can lift with coordination through full ROM 10 times
DeLorme's Progressive resistive exercises
what kind of muscle strengthening is used for trace muscle grades?

- instruct client to contract or "hold" weak muscle
- contraindicated for clients with cardiac disease
isometric
- stregthening usd for poor minus/ fair minus muscles (2-/ 3-)
- weak muscle in concentrically or eccentrically contracted hrough as much ROM as they can achieve. therapist provides assistance to complete the rest of the range
isontonic (active assisted)
strengthening used for poor or fair muscle (gravity eliminated for poor, against gravity for fait)
- client contracts muscle to move part through full ROM
- repeats motion for up to 3 sets of ten with rest break between sets
active ROM
strength training for client with poor plus, fair plus, and above
- client moves body part through full available ROM against resistance
-therapist chooses appropriate amount of resistance
active resistive
how to assess cardiorespiratory function?
pulse
bp
respiration
vital capacity
oxygen level
cardiac output
rate of perceived exertion
target heart rate
what is the SAID principle?
specific adaptation to imposed demands
- specific neuromuscular adaptations observed are the result of unique demands imposed on the neuromuscular unit