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23 Cards in this Set

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What are our two sources of freshwater?
*Surface Water
*Groundwater (Makes up 95% of world's freshwater)
What is the status of the world's water supply?
Since 1990, the world use of water has increased nearly ninefold, and per person use has quadrupled. Withdrawal rates of surface water are projected to double in the next 20 years and exceed reliable sources in a growing number of areas.
How pervasive is pollution of our nation's surface water supply?
The EPA claims that all but a few of the surface water reservoirs in the United States are contaminated by discharge pollutants at specific locations through sewers, pipes, or ditches into bodies of surface water.
What are the two major types of contaminants?
*Biological
*Chemical
What are some major sources of surface water contamination?
Factories, Sewage Treatment Plants, Runoff from large lands (croplands, golf courses, lawns, and parking lots).
What are some major sources of groundwater contamination?
Storage lagoons, Septic tanks, Landfills, Hazardous waste dumps, Underground storage tanks filled with gasoline, oil, solvents, and hazardous waste, and people dumping and spilling oil, gasoline, paint thinners, or other organic solvents onto the ground.
Is our drinking water generally safe?
YES- (Less than 9% of these systems report a violation of one or more health standards each year).
Is bottled water safer than tap water?
Bottled water is just as vulnerable to contamination as tap water. 1/3 of bottled water is contaminated with bacteria.
What are some strategies for conserving and protecting our water supply?
*Water saving shower heads + faucet flow restrictors.
*Don't leave water running while shaving and brushing teeth.
*Low-Flow toilets.
*Check for leaks in water pipes on a regular basis.
*Rain barrels on property to collect water for lawn.
*Energy star dishwasher and equipment.
*Timed automatic sprinkler system.
What are the two layers of the Earth's atmosphere?
*TROPOSPHERE- Innermost layer or lower atmosphere. 80% of the Earth's air and extends 11 miles above sea level at the equator and about 5 miles above the poles.
*STRATOSPHERE- Second layer or upper atmosphere. Extends 11-30 miles above Earth's surface and 99% of the air consists of nitrogen + oxygen and 1% consists of carbon dioxide, argon, and several other gases.
Which layer provides about 80% of our air supply?
Troposphere
What is the greenhouse effect?
Warming of the Earth's surface by heat trapped by gases in the lower atmosphere.
What is ozone?
Odorless, colorless gas composed of three atoms of oxygen; in the upper atmosphere, ozone forms a protective shield blocking UV radiation from the sun; at ground level, ozone is a dangerous pollutant.
What is the major source of air pollution?
Human Activities
What are the six major air pollutants of concern?
*Carbon Monoxide
*Sulfur Dioxide
*Nitrogen Dioxide
*Suspended particulate matter.
*Ground-level ozone
*Metal + metal compounds.
What are some of the health effects of the six major air pollutants?
Respiratory problems, cancers, heart disease, and birth defects.
What is the Air Quality Index? Describe the levels of air!
Measure of air pollution to provide the public with a daily report on air conditions and any associated health warnings.
UNHEALTHY= 100 or higher.
VERY UNHEALTHY= 200 or higher.
HAZARDOUS= 300 or higher.
Besides outdoor air pollution, what are some other air concerns?
*Ozone
*Particulate Pollution
*Carbon Monoxide
*Sulfur Dioxide
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?
*Formaldehyde
*Radon
*Carbon Monoxide
*Mold
*Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE's)
*"Sick Building" and "Sickhouse" syndromes.
What is the current world's population?
6.1 billion currently.
What is the projected population in 2050?
9.1 billion projected by 2050.
What are some factors limiting population growth?
*Food
*Available land + water.
*Energy
*Minimum acceptable standard of living.
What are some factors contributing to population growth?
*High fertility rates.
*Lack of family planning.
*Lower death rates.