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68 Cards in this Set

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Anterior
Front
Posterior
Back
butt
Lateral
To the side
Medial
Middle
Superior
Above
oh mighty one
Inferior
Below
Proximal
Usually used in limbs-closer to the center of the body
Distal
Farther away from the center of the body.
The knee joint is formed by the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia.
Superficial
Muscle layer closest to the skin
Deep
Muscle layer closest in to the bone
Flexion
decreasing angle between two layers
Extension
Increasing the angle between two levers
Hyperextension
Increasing the angle between two levers beyond 180 degrees
Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
Adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body
Rotation
Movement around the central axis of a lever
Inward rotation(inversion)
Rotation of the limbs inward toward the front of the body
outward rotation (eversion)
Rotation of th elimbs outward, away from the front of the body
Articulation
Point(s) at which two or more bones meet to form a joint
Articulating surface
Surface of a bone that contacts another bone
Ligaments
Nonelastic connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Tendons
Elastic connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Fossa
Big cavity, depression, or hollow
Groove
Long narrow indentation
Trochanter
Large chunk of bone
Tuberosity
Medium-sized "chunk"
Tubercle
Little "pimple" of bone
Head
Spherical shape beyond a narrow neckline portion of bone- usually at the end of a bone
Condyle
Big segments of bone, usually at the end of a bone, frequently serving as joint articulations
Name the 3 planes of action.
Frontal, Transverse, Sagital
What is the rule of labeling?
Labeling of actions is relative to direction
State 3 types of balance.
Stable, Off-set, Dynamic
What is Fascia?
Fibrous connective tissue, less elastic than tendons but more elastic than ligaments.
Explain weight bearing.
The single foot carries half its weight on the ball of the foot(the heads of the 5 metatarsals) and half posteriorly on the calcaneous. 1st toe, 5th toe and calcaneous.
Explain the joints of the toes.
The "joint" labeled toes includes all of the interphalangeal joints and the phalangeal metatarsal joints.
Explain the joint actions of the toes.
Flexion, extension, hyperextension, ab & adduction. Restricted to action on the sagital plalne
Explin the joints of the tarsus.
The Tarsus "joint" includes all of the actions that occur at the articulations of the 7 tarsal bones with eachother.
Explain the joint actions of the tarsus.
Occur on frontal and transverse planes. Include Ab& adduction, in & eversion (pronation and supination)
What is the proper allignment of the foot?
Ideally the foot should be in the same sagital plane as the lower leg
Explain individual differences in morton short toe.
In morton short toe the first metatarsal is longer than the second. and causes weight to shift laterally (supinating).
Explain individual differences in tibial tortion.
Tibia is twisted.
Explain individual differences in Hallux valgus.
Misalignment of the first toe. makes it harder to jump. Shoes that are too narrow can cause this.
What is the proper alignment of the tarsus?
Ideally- all 3 bony landmarks fall on the same sagital plane. Supination and pronation.. bad allignment.
What is the shape of the tibia?
Triangular
Explain actions at the ankle joint.
Dorsiflexion, Plantarflexion. which all occur on the sagital plane.
Explain differences at the ankle.
Ostrigonium on the back of the talus is sometimes longar than normal which restricts range of plantar flexion.
Exostosis- A bony protrusion on the tibia.
Name the 6 major ligaments of the knee.
Medial & lateral collateral ligaments, Anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments, Popliteal ligaments.
What do the medial and lateral collateral ligaments restrict?
rotation of the knee in an extended position.
What do the anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments restrict?
Posterior sliding of knee joint, and rotation
What do the popliteal ligaments restrict?
Anterior and posterior sliding, hyperextension.
Explain the functions of the lateral and medial meniscus. AKA medial & lateral semilunar cartilages.
They act as a cushion for the knee joint, the lateral side provides additional stability for the lateral aspect of the knee joint.
Explain the actions of the knee joint & proper alignment.
When the knee is flexed, keep tibia/fibula directly in alignment on the same sagital plane with the femur.
State actions and restrictions at the hip
Actions: Flexion, extension, ab/adduction, in & outward rotation, circumduction
Restrictions: hyperextension.
Explain the proper alignment of the pelvis
Ideally- the anterior superior spine of the ilium and the posterior superior spine of the ilium are on teh same horizontal (transverse) plane & the anterior superior spine of the ilium is on the same vertical (frontal plane) as the symphysis pubis.
Explain differences in structure and action(male and female)
The male's hips are narrower and the femur is straight down. Female hips are wider and femurs come inward.
Explain the actions of the hip.
Flexion, Extension, ab & adduction, In & outward rotation, circumduction. No hyperextension.
Explain actions and restrictions of the lumbar spine.
Lumbar actions: Flexion, Extension, hyperextension, lateral flexion.
Restrictions: can be a restriction of flexion, limits normal range of motion.
Exlpain the actions and restrictions of the thoracic spine.
Actions:Flexion, extension, rotation, lateral flexion
Restrictions: only by ribs contacting eachother.
Explain the actions, and restrictions of the cervical spine.
Actions: Flexion, extension, hyperextension, lateral flexion, rotation.
Restrictions: primary restrictions provided by musculature.
Explain gravity related to the spine.
If the weight of the spine is not centered over the base of support-the pelvis and legs- the spine will fall in the direction that it is off-center.
ex: if the spine is slightly laterally flexed to the right, gravity will initally continue that direction of action.
Explain differences: variations in curves and in movement potential.
redo this one.
Explain the actions and positions of the shoulder joint.
Actions: ab & adduction, hyper ab & adduction, flexion, extension, hyper flexion & extension, Horizontal flexion & extension, in & outward rotation.
Positions: Exension, hyperextension, ab & adduction.
Explain the number of positions on the frontal plane.
Frontal: 1 neutral position, and an infinite number of postitions of both ab & adduction.
Explain the number of positions on the Transverse plane.
one neutral position of rotation and an infinite number of positions of both inward and outward rotation.
Explain the number of positions on the Sagittal plane.
Horizontal flexion and extension combo actions of the frontal and sagittal planes.
What happens when the forearm rotates?
The radius crosses over.
Explain elbow joint: articulation.
Humerous and radius
Explain actions at the elbow.
primary articulation between the humerous and the ulna. secondary articulation of the elbow joint is between the radius and the humerous.