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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
immune system
defense system of the body
ability of the body to develop non-susceptibility to disease.
injection of antibodies or altered antigens in order to prevent a specific illness or disease.
specific immune response
confered against a specific pathogen (i.e. smallpox)
non specific response
ability to ward off new pathogens such as bacteria in a cut. generalized responses of the immune system.
in non-specific immunity, white blood cells are drawn to the site of entry of foreign particles by a series of chemical signals. The chemical attraction and the subsequent response by the white blood cells to move to the affected area to destroy the foreign particles is chemotaxis
white blood cells - extend pseudopods to engulf and phagocytize invading bacteria
lymphatic system
involved in genarlized phagocytic response, lymphatic system serves to return excess fluid back to the circulatory system, but also contains microphages to destroy any bacteria or foreign bodies that have entered the body.
langerhans cells- capable of engulfing and destroying foreign particles
immunoglobin Ig
large protein molecules capable of binding to and opposing foreign bodies such as viruses and bacteria.
Organisms which attack or harm the body
- may include bacteria, viruses, or parasites such as worms or ticks
plasma cells
B cell that circulates in the blood. upon meeting a pathogen, or receiving chemotaxic signals, B cell enlarges and differentiates releasing antibodies
most actively phagocytic white blood cells. first to arrive. polymorphonucleic leukocyte.
involved in inflammatory response.
white blood cell - phagocytic
polymorphonucleic granulocyte
same as eosinophils
phagocytic white blood cell. non granular leukocyte
integral part of immune system. several kinds but all aid in destroying foreign bodies.
T-lymphocyte - origin
immature T cells in infants originate from stem cells in bone marrow. released to the lymph to mature until a few months after birth.
T lymphocyte - adults
formed in lymph tissue of adults
T cell types and functions
1. Killer t cells - destroy a TARGET cell
2. Helper T cells - help B cells to function - respond to antigens, RELEASE CYTOKINES, stimulating macrophage activation antibody response
3. Supressor T cells - suppress action of both helper and killer - work in negative feedback loop to ensure T cells don't become overactive.
B cells
act in concert with T cells to promote healing.
B cells - originate and mature where?
Originate AND mature in bone marrow (unlike T cells.)
T cells are able to recognize what?
Only PART of an antigen - NOT an entire antigen. (Unlike B cells.) Recognize these by binding to a fragment of an antigen, then destroy it while secreting cytokines.
B cells work how?
1. when exposed to antigen, enlarge, grow into plasma cells, RELEASE ANTIBODIES into circulation: EFFECTOR B cell.

2. Memory cell - remains in body after initial infection. On second exposure, immediately replicates, producing more effector and more memory B cells.
mast cells
throughout the body - synthesize and release histamines, are derivatives of basophil white blood cells
immunoglobulin protein that creates an immune response to a specific molecule.
large molecule in cell membrane that causes immune system to create a specific antibody.
plasma proteins.
Active as part of immunoresponse.
help phagocytes to bind to bacterium, or some can directly destroy bacterium.
paracrine factor - causes swelling of damaged tissue and allergic (hypersensitivity) reaction effects.
disease which causes drastic increase in number of white blood cells in circulation.
Human immunodeficiency virus - responsible for aids.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
allergy. overactive immune system response to non-threatening stimuli. Caused initially by response to pollen, dust, or other environmental factor. Mast cells produce histamines in response, not initially causing an adverse reaction. On subsequent exposures to same stimuli, mast cells overreact, producing enormous amounts of histamines, causing swelling, redness, tearing, sneezing etc.). More subsequent severe reactions are result of how body reacts to antigens more severely after initial exposure.
lung disease. causes constriction of airways. bronchiolarconstriction.
vaccine confers immunity to disease how?
Lymphocyte reaction to fragments of virus (antigen) become sensitized, differentiate into daughter cells - memory B cells, Killer T cells, kill the fragments, become immune over time (memory cells.).
vaccines made of dead organisms - how does this work?
T cells recognize fragments of antigens, binding to receptor sites. Doesn't matter if virus in vaccine is dead.
specific receptors pre-formed for almost *any* invading organism - how?
millions of different types of T cells circulating. Chances are that bacteria will run into a type that will bind with it. That type then immediately multiplies.
Physiological mechanism behind AIDS
-triggered by an external virus entering the body
-first actively attacks and handicaps the immune system
-mutating rapidly to decimate antibody formation by mutating antigen attachments
-Then, Helper T cells are attacked, effectively wiping out the immune system
physiological mechanism behind leukemia
- uncontrolled proliferation of leukocytes as a result of cancer in the lymph glands or bone marrow
- can cause normally protective leukocytes to become abnormal, and non-functional
- loss of functional white cells increases infection, causes less red blood cell (erythrocyte) production
-malfunction of normally healthy systems can lead to cancerous cells clogging lymph and liver tissue, causing death
Gamma globulin shot
increases immune response. important for travelling to poor areas where sanitary conditions not good. gives better chance of fighting viruses and bacteria.
physiological responses to bacteria entering a cut?
chemical signals sent to nearby tissue - histamines and other chemicals, and "non-self" signals sent by actual bacteria. provoke chemotaxis. white blood cells come to destroy - first neutrophils, then monocytes which actively microphage bacteria, or secrete enzymes to destroy it if too large. complement in plasma nearby also attaches to bacteria to aid or to destroy by itself, the bacteria. If bacteria get past phagocytes and complement, Lymphocyte B and T cells in lymph system work together to destroy any remaining bacteria.

lymph nodes
- areas ALONG LYMPHATIC VESSELS AND SPLEEN, serve as holding areas for phagocytes, where they reside to attack and destroy foreign bodies that have made it deeper into the body, and entered the lymphatic system. Adult lymph tissue is the site of production of lymphocytes