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100 Cards in this Set

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Where less strain is incurred before failure (ie - glass)
Brittleness
When the material gets to a certain point, it shatters
Brittleness
______ is demonstrated in older bones.
Brittleness
Greater strain is incurred before failure (ie - metals)
Ductility
How much the material can stretch (bone - will not fail all at once)
Ductility
_______ is demonstrated in younger bone.
Ductility
- Maximum stress on a plane that is perpendicular to the applied load.

- The material lengthens and narrows (Poisson effect)
Tension
- Maximum stress on a plane that is perpendicular to the applied load

- The material shortens and widens
Compression
- Maximum stress on a plane that is parallel to the applied load

- Angular deformation occurs internally
Shear
- Tension occurs on the convex side and compression on the concave side
Bending
Boot top fracture - failure at middle force
Three Point Bending
Force couple - failure at weakest point
Four Point Bending
- Torque produced within the tissue

- Comprised of tension, compression, and shear stresses
Torsion
Which is more vascular: Cortical bone or Cancellous bone?
Cancellous bone
Outer shell of dense bone, (compact bone) that makes up 80% of the skeletal mass.
Cortical Bone
It is less metabolically active and found predominantely in the appendicular skeleton (long bones). Growth occurs with a net bone formation at the periosteal surface and net bone loss at the endosteal surface.
Cortical bone
Hollow core is filled by yellow marrow.
Cortical bone
Makes up 20% of the skeletal mass and is more metabolically active, predominately in the axial skeleton.
Cancellous bone
Trabecular lines develop along lines of force in a honeycomb pattern
Cancellous bone
Located in flat bones and fills short bones and ends of long bones under the articular surfaces.
Cancellous bone
There are no Haversian canals due to the vascularity of the red marrow that surrounds this osseous tissue.
Cancellous bone
In what loading mode does bone tend to fail first?
- Bending:
- Three Point Bending (Boot Top Fracture) - Compression on front side and TENSION on back of bone.

- It would fail first on the TENSION side

- Bone tends to fail in tension before compression
How does muscular contraction affect bone loading?
- Muscular contraction has a neutralizing effect on tension stress during bending

- Allows for greater loads than normally possible as bone tends to fail in tension before compression
Articular cartilage has high __________ and very low __________.
Articular cartilage has high POROSITY and very low PERMEABILITY.
Factors that affect tissue properties
1) Aging

2) Pregnancy

3) Immobilization

4) Drugs

5) Pathologies of note
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Hemodizlysis
- Amyloidal build up
What is the science of fittings jobs to people?
Ergonomics
This encompasses knowledge about physical abilities & limitations relevant to job design.
Ergonomics
_______ is the application of this knowledge to design of the workplace for safe and efficient use by workers.
Ergonomic design
What is the timeline for recovery of ligament biomechanical properties?

Maximum Load to Failure
- Control: _____%
- Immobilization 8 wks: __%
- Reconditioned 5 mths: __%
- Reconditioned 12 mths: __%
Maximum Load to Failure
- Control: 100%
- Immobilization 8 wks: 61%
- Reconditioned 5 mths: 79%
- Reconditioned 12 mths: 91%
What is the timeline for recovery of ligament biomechanical properties?

Energy Stored to Failure
- Control: _____%
- Immobilization 8 wks: __%
- Reconditioned 5 mths: __%
- Reconditioned 12 mths: __%
Energy Stored to Failure
- Control: 100%
- Immobilization 8 wks: 68%
- Reconditioned 5 mths: 78%
- Reconditioned 12 mths: 92%
______ is the most effective method of reducing work injury & cost.
Prevention
Designed to limit trauma & inflammation by providing intervention in the first few minutes or hours.
Early Intervention
Ergonomic risk factors that contribute to CTD (Cumulative Trauma Disorders)
1) Musculoskeletal disorders
- Force
- Repetition
- Vibration
- Awkward or static postures
- Contact stress (pressure/friction)
- Environmental factors

2) Combination of those factors

3) Loss of flexibility, strength, and endurance

4) Rising rate of obesity
What is the importance of early intervention?
- Designed to limit trauma & inflammation by providing intervention in the first few minutes or hours.

- Results in reduced rehab time

- A limited amount of treatment, and education and instruction are often all that are needed

- On-site treatment is ideal for providing early intervention

- Calls for reduction of activity levels
- If the stress on inflamed or damaged tissues is not reduced, healing will not occur.
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip Flexion
0-120
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip Extension
0-20
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip Abduction
0-45
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip Adduction
0-30
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip External Rotation
0-40
Normal/AVG ROM for Hip Internal Rotation
0-40
Normal/AVG ROM for Knee Flexion
0-145
Normal/AVG ROM for Knee Extension
0
Normal/AVG ROM for Ankle Plantar flexion
0-50
Normal/AVG ROM for Ankle Dorsiflexion
0-20
Normal/AVG ROM for Subtalar Inversion
0-35
Normal/AVG ROM for Subtalar Eversion
0-20
Normal/AVG ROM for 1st MTP Flexion
0-20
Normal/AVG ROM for 1st MTP Extension
0-80
Normal/AVG ROM for Cervical Flexion
45-50
Normal/AVG ROM for Cervical Extension
45-60
Normal/AVG ROM for Cervical Lateral Flexion
45
Normal/AVG ROM for Cervical Rotation
70-80
Normal/AVG ROM for Lumbar Flexion
60-90
Normal/AVG ROM for Lumbar Extension
30
Normal/AVG ROM for Lumbar Lateral Flexion
30-35
What movements have a Normal/AVG ROM of 0-20
- Hip extension

- Ankle Dorsiflexion

- Subtalar Eversion

- 1st MTP Flexion
At the hip, the rule of ______ moving surfaces applies to the femur on pelvis.
Convex
At the hip, the rule of _____ moving surfaces applies to the pelvis on femur.
Concave
At the knee, the tibia moving on the femur is the rule of moving _______ surfaces.
Concave
At the knee, the femur moving on the tibia is the rule of moving _______ surfaces.
Convex
To improve knee flexion, improve ______.
posterior slide
To improve knee extension, improve _________.
anterior slide
Open chain talocrural joint has the talus moving on the tib/fib mortise. This is the rule of moving ______ surfaces.
Convex
Closed chain talocrural joint has the tib/fib mortise moving on the talus. This is the rule of moving ______ surfaces.
Concave
This ligament attaches to the medial meniscus.
MCL
This ligament does not attach to the lateral meniscus.
LCL
This ligament limits hyperextension, anterior movement of the tibia, posterior movement of the femur, extreme rotation, valgus and varus at the knee.
ACL
This ligament limits anterior movement of the femur, posterior movement of the tibia, limits extreme rotation, valgus and varus at the knee.
PCL
The medial and lateral menisci are what type of cartilage?
Fibrocartilage
Iliopsoas
A: hip flexion

N: Lumbar plexus & femoral
Adductor Longus & Brevis
A: hip adduction

N: Obturator
Adductor Magnus
A: hip adduction

N: Obturator & Sciatic
Pectineus
A: hip adduction & flexion

N: Femoral
Gluteus Maximus
A: extension & lateral rotation of hip

N: Inferior Gluteal
Gluteus Medius
A: Abduction and medial rotation of the hip

N: Superior Gluteal
Gluteus Minimus
A: abduction and medial rotation of hip

N: Superior Gluteal
Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL)
A: flexion, abduction, and internal rotation of the hip (FABIR)

N: Superior Gluteal
Piriformis
A: Lateral rotation of the hip

N: Sacral plexus
Obturator Internus
A: lateral rotation of the hip

N: Nerve to obturator internus
Gracilis
A: hip adduction & knee flexion

N: Obturator
Sartorius
A: flexion, abduction, & external rotation of hip (FABER); knee flexion

N: Femoral
Semitendinosus
A: extension of hip and knee flexion

N: Sciatic
Semimembranosus
A: extension of hip and knee flexion

N: Sciatic
Bicep Femoris
A: extension of hip and knee flexion

N: Long head - Sciatic
Short head - Common Peroneal
Rectus Femoris
A: hip flexion; knee extension

N: Femoral
Vastus Lateralis, Medialis, and Intermedius
A: knee extension

N: Femoral
Anterior Compartment muscles and the nerve that innervates them
Nerve: Deep Peroneal

Muscles:
- Tibialis Anterior
- Extensor Digitorum Longus
- Extensor Hallucis Longus
Lateral Compartment muscles and the nerve that innervates them
Nerve: Superficial Peroneal

Muscles:
- Peroneus Longus
- Peroneus Brevis
Superficial Posterior Compartment muscles and nerve
Nerve: Tibial

Muscles:
- Gastrocnemius
- Soleus
Deep Posterior Compartment muscles and nerve.
Nerve: Tibial

Muscles:
- Popliteus
- Flexor Hallucis Longus
- Flexor Digitorum Longus
- Tibialis Posterior
Anterior Pelvic Tilt - __1__ plane.

Anterior tilt causes symphysis pubis to move __2__. Anterior tilt results in hip __3__ and __4__ in lumbar spine, therefore __5__ lumbar lordosis.
Anterior Pelvic Tilt - 1)SAGITTAL plane.

Anterior tilt causes symphysis pubis to move 2) INFERIORLY. Anterior tilt results in hip 3) FLEXION and 4) EXTENSION in lumbar spine, therefore 5) INCREASING lumbar lordosis.
Posterior Pelvic Tilt - __1__ plane.

Posterior tilt causes symphysis pubis to move __2__. Posterior tilt results in hip __3__ and __4__ in lumbar spine, therefore __5__ lumbar lordosis.
Posterior Pelvic Tilt - 1)SAGITTAL plane.

Posterior tilt causes symphysis pubis to move 2) SUPERIORLY. Posterior tilt results in hip 3) EXTENSION and 4) FLEXION in lumbar spine, therefore 5) DECREASING lumbar lordosis.
Lateral pelvic tilt is in the _____ plane.
frontal
Pelvic rotation is in the _____ plane.
horizontal
Anterior tilt is caused by the force couple action of the _____ and ______
Hip Flexors

Trunk Extensors
Posterior tilt is caused by the force couple action of the _____, _______, ______, and _____.
Rectus Abdominis

External Obliques

Gluteus Maximus

Hamstrings
Lateral tilt is caused by the force couple action of the _____ and ______.
Hip Abductors

Quadratus Lumborum
Rotation is caused by the force couple action of ______ and ______.
Hip rotators

Trunk rotators
What makes the nucleus pulposus (NP) move anteriorly?
Extension of the spine
What makes the nucleus pulposus (NP) move posteriorly?
Flexion of the spine