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56 Cards in this Set

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- Dictates that the body does not produce, consume or use up energy; rather, it transforms it from one form into another as physiologic systems undergo continual change
First law of Thermodynamics
- The limits of exercise intensity ultimately depend on the rate that cells, extract, conserve, and transfer chemical energy in the food nutrients to the contractile filaments of skeletal muscle
Factors Affecting Bioenergetics?
- Enzymes
- Reaction rates
- Enzyme mode of action
- Coenzymes
- Are highly specific protein catalysts
- Accelerate the forward and reverse reactions
- Are neither consumed nor changed in the reaction
- Complex non-protein organic substances facilitate enzyme action by binding the substrate with its specific enzyme
- The only macronutrient whose potential energy generates ATP anaerobically
- The complete breakdown of 1 mole of glucose liberates ~ ____ kCal of energy
- ____ kCal/Mole / ____ kCal/Mole = ___ ATP
- 263 kCal/Mole / 7.3 kCal/Mole = 36 ATP
o Site of fat storage and mobilization
o 95% of an adipocyte’s volume is occupied by triglyceride (TG) fat droplets
o Lipolysis splits TG molecules into glycerol and three water-soluble free fatty acids (FFA)
- Adipocytes
o Converted into Pyruvate which is then converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the Krebs Cycle
o ________ gives off 19 ATP
§ Are transformed into acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria during B-oxidation
§ A process that successively releases 2-carbon acetyl fragments split from long fatty acid chains
Free Fatty Acids
§ _____ ATP come from EACH Free Fatty Acids
147 ATP
· 19 ATP + ( 147 ATP x 3 Glycerides ) = ____ ATP
· Total of ____ ATP produced in B-Oxidation
460 ATP
______________ is the process of removing the Nitrogen from a Protein molecule
Immediate energy system- what are they? Fuel source? How long does the fuel last?
o Performances of ultra-short duration ( < 6 seconds) and high intensity require an immediate and rapid supply of energy
§ 100-m Sprint
§ 25-m Swim
§ Smashing a tennis ball during the serve
o Comes from ATP ( 5-6 seconds ) and phospho-creatine ( 8-10 seconds )
o High-Energy Phosphates
§ Stored within skeletal muscle
· Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
· Phosphocreatine (PCr)
· PCr + ADP ß à Cr + ATP
Short-term energy system- what are they? Fuel source? How long does the fuel last?
o Lactic Acid System
o During intense exercise, intramuscular stored glycogen provides energy to convert ADP to ATP, forming lactate due to a lack of available oxygen.
o Lactate comes from Pyruvates
o Accomodates for roughly 10-90 seconds of activity
o Performances of short duration and high intensity that require rapid energy transfer that exceeds that supplied by phosphagens
§ 400-m Sprint
§ 100-m Swim
§ Multi-Sprint sports
Long-term energy system- what are they? Fuel source? How long does the fuel last?
o Aerobic System
o Fuel Source: CHO, Fat, Pro – macronutrients
o Aerobic metabolism provides the greatest proportion of energy transfer, particularly when exercise duration extends beyond 2 to 3 minutes.
o Vo2 Max = maximal volume of oxygen consumed, even if exercise intensity is increased
§ The highest oxygen uptake achieved despite increases in exercise intensity
§ Represents an individual’s capacity for aerobically resynthesizing ATP
- Oxygen consumption following exercise remains elevated for several minutes to several hours depending on the intensity and duration of exercise
- This elevation in oxygen consumption is often referred to as the “oxygen Debt” or excess ____________________________.
Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
- _________ muscle fibers are highly oxidative and are designed for prolonged endurance activities
Type I
- _________ muscle fibers are highly glycolytic and are designed for explosive activities
Type IIb
- _________ muscle fibers are both oxidative and glycolytic and are designed for activites that are both aerobic and anaerobic in nature
Type IIa
Work? Measured in what?
o Force x Distance
o Measured in units of Joules
Power? Measured in what?
o (Force x Distance) / Time
o Measured in units of Joules/Sec or Watts
o Activation of the glycolytic energy pathway results in considerable accumulation of blood lactate
Blood lactate levels
o Provides an indication of the contribution of glycolysis to maximal exercise
Glycogen depletion
What does the Wingate test do?
§ Lactate build up
§ Glycogen depletion
o Measure anaerobic power, capacity, and fatigue
Factors Affecting Anaerobic performance?
- Specific anaerobic training
- Ability to buffer lactate (Lactate Threshold)
- Motivation
o The (direct) measurement of human energy metabolism by measuring heat production
- Direct calorimetry
o The (indirect) measurement of human energy metabolism by measurement of oxygen consumption
o All aerobic energy-releasing reaction in body ultimately depend on the use of oxygen
o Closed-circuit spirometry
o Open-circuit spirometry
§ Douglas bag (weather balloon)
§ Portable spirometry
§ Computerized instrumentation
- Indirect Calorimetry
Respiratory Quotient (RQ? Formula and what to helps approximate?
- Helps to approximate the nutrient mixture catabolized for energy during rest\ and aerobic exercise
- RQ = VCO2 / VO2
- RQ=____ Gas exhange during glucose oxidation produces an equal number of CO2 molecules to O2 molecules consumed
- RQ= ______ Generally, a value of 0.70 represents the RQ for lipid, ranging between 0.69 and 0.73, depending on the oxidized fatty acid’s carbon chain length
- RQ= _____ General RQ for a mixed/balanced diet
What does V02max represent?
- VO2max represents the greatest amount of oxygen a person can consume, transport, and utilize to produce ATP aerobically on a per-minute basis
What is the criteria for achieving V02max?
- A leveling-off or peaking-over in oxygen uptake during increasing exercise intensity signifies attainment of VO2max
- Blood lactate concentrations that reach at least 8-10 mmol
- 220 – Age = PMHR ( Predicted Max Heart Rate )
- Attainment of a near age-predicted maximum heart rate, or a respiratory exchange ratio (R) in excess of 1.00
Factors affecting VO2max?
- Age
- Gender – lung capacity, and muscle mass
- Training state
- Mode of testing
- Genetics
- Body composition
Components of daily energy expenditure?
- Thermic effect of physical activity (-15 to 30%)
- Thermic effect of feeding (-10%)
- Resteing metabolic rate (060 to 75%)
- The minimum energy required to sustain the body’s functions in the waking state
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Basal Metabolic Rate is assessed by measurement of VO2 under the following standardized conditions
o 12 hours post-absorptive
o No undue muscular exertion for at least 12 hours prior to measurement
o Measured after the person has been lying quietly for 30 to 60 minutes in a dimly lit, temperature-controlled room
Dietary-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)
- Consuming food increases energy metabolism as a result of the following energy-requiring processes
o Digestion of nutrients
o Absorption of nutrients
o Assimilation of nutrients
Thermic effect of physical activity

the energy expenditure solely attributed to physical activity after subtracting out the resting energy expenditure
- Net energy expenditure
Thermic effect of physical activity

The total energy expenditure for a given (exercise) time period
- Gross energy expenditure
- Energy expended during weight-bearing exercise increases directly with the body mass transported
- one MET represents an adult’s average, seated, resting oxygen consumption or energy expenditure
o 1 MET = ____ ml / (kg x min)
o The Met provides a conveniten tway to rate exercise intensity with respect to a resting baseline
§ 2 MET = 7.0 ml / (kg x min)
§ 10 MET = 35.0 ml / (kg x min)
- HR and VO2 relate ________ throughout a broad range of aerobic exercise intensities

- Thus, HR may provide an estimate of VO2 (and energy expenditure) during physical activity
Factors affecting endurance performance?
- Aerobic power (VO2max)
- Efficiency of energy use
- Economy of movement
Indicates the percentage of the total chemical energy expended that contributes to the external work output
- Mechanical efficiency (ME)
ME (%)= What's the formula?
- ME (%) = Work Output / Energy Expended x 100
- Expressions of ME?
o Gross mechanical Efficiency
o Net Mechanical Efficiency
o Delta Efficiency
Factors influencing Mechanical Efficiency (ME)?
o Work Rate
o Movement Speed
o Extrinsic Factors
o Muscle Fiber Type
o Fitness Level
o Body Composition
o Technique
- Reflects the relationship between energy input and output
- For example, at a given sumbaximum speed of running, cycling, or swimming, an individual with greater movement economy will consume less oxyen
Economy of Movement
- Running speed can increase in what 3 ways?
o Increase stride frequency
o Increase stride length
o Increase both stride length and frequency
- Children are less economical runners than adults and require 20 to 30% more oxygen per unit of body mass to …………
- Swimming requires about four times more energy to swim a given distance compared to running
- Three components comporise the total drag force that impedes a swimmer’s forward movement
o Wave drag
o Skin friction drag
o Viscous pressure drag