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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three types of sensory information
Touch
Proprioception
Vision
When we touch something, __________ in the skin activate to provide the ______ with info related to pain, temperature, and movement
Mechanoreceptors
CNS
What do mechanoreceptors detect?
Skin stretching
Joint movement

(Mechanical pressure and distortion)
Where are mechanoreceptors most concentrated?
Fingertips
Role of Tactile information
Movement accuracy
Movement consistency
Movement force adjustments
Movement distance estimation
Proprioception
sensory systems's detection and reception of movement and spatial position of limbs, trunk, and head
Proprioceptors (4)
Muscles
Tendons
Ligaments
Joints
Types of Proprioceptors
Muscle spindles
Golgi tendon organs (GTO)
Joint receptors
Muscle spindles
(location, function, involved with....)
- within fibers of most skeletal muscle
- Detects change in muscle fiber length and velocity (of stretch)
- involved with reflexes and in voluntary movements
GTO (golgi-tendon organs)
(location, function)
-in skeletal muscle near insertion of tendon
- detects change in muscle tension (force)
Joint receptors
(location, changes in...)
-several types
- in joint capsule and ligaments
- changes in force and rotation as well as joint movement angle
3 deafferentation techniques
Surgical
Deafferentation due to sensory neuropathy
Temporary
Sensory neuropathy
large myelinated fibers of limb are lost, leading to loss of sensory info
Tendon vibration technique
process of altering proprioception by high speed vibrations of the tendon of the agonist muscle

- distorts proprioceptive feedback
Proprioceptive feedback gives us...
movement accuracy
- target accuracy
- spatial and temporal accuracy
onset of motor commands
coordination
- postural control
- spatial control
- adapting to new situation
________ is in many cases the preferred source of sensory info
Vision

i.e. typists look at keyboard
dancers look at feet
Moving Room
- who?
- what was it?
- Lee and Aronson

- Participants stood in room in which walls move toward/away from them but floor doesn't move
Moving Room Results
When walls moved, people adjusted their posture to not fall, even though not moving off balance
Neurophysiology of the eye
o Cornea
o Iris
o Lens
o Sclera
o Aqueous humor
o Vitreous humor
Retina components
Fovea centralis
Optic disk
Rods
Cones
Optic nerve (cranial nerve __ ) travels from the _____ to the brain's _________ _______
II
retina
visual cortex
Eye movement recording
tracks foveal visions "point of gaze"

i.e. what the person is looking at

- skilled tennis players eyes vs. amateur tennis players eyes
Temporal occlusion techniques
determines how long a person requires to visually detect the environmental context info he or she uses to perform a skill

- i.e. spectacle with liquid crystal lenses
Event occlusion technique
identifies specific visual info a person uses to make the required response

i.e. parts of video masked
Monocular vision
As the distance of the object increases, the monocular abilities (accuracy and efficiency) of the movement decrease.
Binocular vision
important in depth perception when 3D objects are involved
- reaching-grasping object
- walking on cluttered pathway
- intercepting moving object
Central vision
aka foveal vision

- middle 2-5 degrees of visual field
- provides specific information to allow us to achieve action goals
- for reaching and grasping
- walking on a pathway
Peripheral
- detects beyond central vision limits
- upper limit typically ~200 degrees
- info about env contexts and moving limb(s)
- optical flow patterns
Optical flow
rays of light that strike the retina
Two visual systems
vision for perception (central vision)

vision for action (peripheral vision)
vision for perception
referred to as ventral stream - from visual cortex to temporal lobe
- fine analysis of a scene (form, features)
- available to consciousness
Vision for action
referred to as the dorsal stream - from visual cortex to posterior parietal lobe

- for detecting spatial characteristics of a scene guiding movement

- typically not available to consciousness
Perception-action coupling
- perceptual event and an action

- spatial and temporal characteristics of limb movements line u with spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movements
Estimated time required for movement corrections to occur on the basis of visual feedback
100-160 msec

but the minimum amt of time could be faster in situations where the person is anticipating making a movement correction
Situations involving time to contact (optical variable, tau)
- object moving towards person must be intercepted
- person moving toward object needs to contact or avoid contact
Tau
optical variable quantifying amt of time remaining until the object contacts the person (or vice vera) form a specific distance
What leads to the action in time-to-contact situations?
increase in retinal image triggers action required
When speed is emphasized, _________ is _________
accuracy
reduced
When you emphasize _______,
speed is ________.
accuracy
reduced

i.e. calligraphy
Fitt's Law
shows that we can mathematically predict movement time for speed-accuracy skills
MT= a + b logv2 (2D/W)
formula used to predict movement time when knowing the distance to move and the target size
Movement distance affects ______
Target size affects ________
movement time

accuracy
Index of difficulty formula
Logv2 (2D/W)
Fitts' Law predicts __________
MT of motor skills

i.e. PK to different sized areas of goal
Open loop control
Initial movement instructions sufficient to move limb to the vicinity of target; no feedback

i.e asking for completion as quickly and accurately as possible
Closed loop control
feedback from vision and proprioception at end of movement ensure hitting of target accurately; there is feedback;

helps become more accurate
Prehension
actions involving reaching for and grasping of objects
3 components of Prehension
Transport
- movement of hand to object

Grasp
- hand takes hold of object

Object manipulation
- hand carrying out intended use of object
Transport and grasp components show strong temporal relationship by interacting synergistically. Why?
reduce degrees of freedom
Goodale et. al. found that...
- object size and distance from hand influenced timing of max. grip aperture and velocity profile of the transport component

- regardless of size hand closure (max. grip aperture) occurs at about 2/3 of the total MT duration of action
vision in prehension
PREP AND INITIATION
- see where something is before you pick it up
- regulatory conditions
- how far you need to reach

TRANSPORT OF HAND
- central vision directs hand providing time-to-contact to initiate grasp
- peripheral provides hand movement feedback

GRASP
- tactile and proprioceptive feedback ensure intended use is achieved
Prehension demonstrates ________ trade off characteristics predicted by ___________
speed-accuracy
Fitts' Law
Latash and Jaric - index of difficulty for picking up...
containers of diff sizes and quantities of liquids
Handwriting motor control demonstrates characteristics of a coordinative or noncoordinative structure?
coordinative
Each individuals motor control of handwriting demonstrates "_______ ________"
motor equivalence
When no vision in writing...
space seems to widen and text starts to divide horizontal line
Bimanual coordination
motor skills that require simultaneous use of two hands
Symmetric bimanual coordination
both hands move with same spatial and/or temporal characteristics

i.e. rolling wheelchair, row boat
Asymmetric bimanual coordination
both hands move with different spatial and/or temporal characteristics

i.e. guitar/drum playing, serving tennis ball
Kelso, Southard, Goodman

bimanual coorination preferences
people performed rapid aiming movements simultaneously with each arm to targets that had the same or different Fitts' ID
Swinnen, Schmidt, Nicholson,and Shapiro
participants move their arms in different spatial-temporal patterns
Locomotion is...
aka gait

movement

i.e. walking, running, throwing
CPG - central pattern generators
functional network in spinal cord, generating rhythm and shaping the pattern of motor neuron activity
Along with CPGs, proprioceptive feedback from ________ and ________ also influence gait
muscle spindles
GTOs
Head stability in locomotion
-our head contains complex of sensory and motor nervous system components essential or us to navigate though an environment and maintain postural stability so we don't fall

-maintaining head stability optimizes use of vision
What is spontaneous gait transition and why does it occur?
i.e. change from walk-to-run

most popular hyp: minimize metabolic energy (VO2) use
Why is vision is impt in walking/running?
-contracting objects
-avoiding contact with objects
3 phases to catching a moving object
1. Initial position of arm/hand
2. shaping of hands and fingers
3. grasping the object
Two critical time periods in catching
1. initial flight portion (of object)
2. just prior to hand contact
Is vision of hands necessary to catch a moving object?
inexperienced - yes
experienced - no (feedback not needed)
Factors in striking a moving object
1. Ball speed effect
- amt of time before initiating bat movement is altered depending on speed

2. visual contact with moving ball
- not maintaining visual contact though out ball flight
- predict final location
Phases involved in movement preparation
Intention
Preparation
Initiation
Termination
Donders says...
motor control system requires time to prepare to produce an intended action
Reaction time
index of preparation time required to produce an action
What is reaction time affected by?
Performance situation
Performer characteristics
An increase in choices affects RT in what way
gives rise to an increase in RT
Hick's Law

aka Hick-Hyman
RT increases linearly as the number of choices increase
RT= b [log₂ (N + 1)]
Hick-hyman formula

N = number of choices
RT _______ if correct response choice becomes more predictable
decreases
Precue
advance information about an upcoming event that needs a response
Precue correctness
RT becomes faster if precue correctness probability is higher than the probabilities equally possible choices
Stimulus-response compatibility states...
RT will be faster as the relationship b/w stimulus characteristics and their required response become compatible (spatial relationship decreases)
cost-benefit trade off
cost (slower RT) and benefit (faster RT) that occurs as a result of biasing the preparation of an action in favor of one of several possible actions
Stroop effect
diff type of S-R compatibility in which the appearance of the stimulus suggests one type of response, but the situation requires a diff response

i.e. ink of word is not same color as the written word, therefore RT to read the word is slower
foreperiod
interval b/w the warning and the go stimulus

i.e. in sports, you try to anticipate the opponent so that your RT is better
T/F
More regularity in length of foreperiod can result in longer RT.
False;
shorter RT
Can length be too long?
yes and if it is, it becomes barely effective or ineffective
Movement complexity
As complexity increases, RT increases
Henry and Rogers
person responds to a gong and then performs a task

3 tasks
- lift finger
- lift finger, grab ball
- lift finger, hit target, push button, grab ball

RT w/ added complexity
- 165ms, 199ms, 212 ms
movement accuracy
RT increases when the accuracy demands increase
T/F
More preparation is required for more constraint and accurate movements
True
Repetition of movement
continuous repetition can increase RT
Psychological Refractory Period (PRP)
- responding to one signal requires time to process before responding to another

- delayed response to 2nd stimulus
Performer characteristics
-alertness
- warning signal (track)
- Foreperiod length effects
- vigilance effect (staring at radar for long time, don't notice when small dot shows up)

Attention focus
- RT – focus on signal (sensory set) versus movement (motor)
- MT and sensory/motor set
- move as fast as possible? focus on signal
Fractionating RT
EMG recording divided into two distinct components
- premotor comp
- motor comp
What is the purpose of fractionating RTs>
allows us to gain insight into what occurs during action prep process

in most cases, premotor RT is increases more than motor RT, except in movement velocity, they are fairly linear
Postural preparation
organization of movements needed for postural support

- anticipated balance change due to movement

- postural prep involves organizing a flexible organized synergy of muscles
Why do we want postural prep to be flexible?
so we can have many options for change (using two arms vs. just one)
Limb performance preparation
- direction (where must the limb move?)

- trajectory (path our arm/hand will follow; any obstacles in the way of movement)

- accuracy (leeway we have with trajectory in front of us; slow down for accuracy)
Object control preparation
How do we want to control the object being manipulated

- force
- how much force applied based on size/type of object)
-end-state comfort
- hand position most comfortable to complete the action
Sequences of movements
we prepare our movements for our actions and the more complex the movement, the more we have to prepare our movements resulting in longer RT
Spatial coding
response compatibility

S-R compatibility
- right- right; left-left
- right-up; left-down
Rhythmicity preparation
Pre-performance rituals

i.e. shooting free throws
tennis serve
Attention refers to what types of characteristics?
Consciousness
- sleeping is not attention
Awareness
- bored, means we'll do less and we are less aware
Cognitive effort
- how much effort we put in
Limitations on performance of skill
- simultaneous performance of multiple skills

- detection of relevant info in the environment

-ignoring irrelevant info in t environment
When performing more than one task simultaneously...`
- no measurable detrimental effects
- deteriorated task performance

- our attention can be divided among tasks or diverted to one
Filter theories
aka bottleneck theories

attention theory in which a stimulus results in serially (in order) produced response(s)

this is because some of these functions can only process one action at a time
Resource capacity theories
states that there are limited resources to performance of multiple tasks
If resource capacity limits are exceeded...
performance deteriorates on one or more tasks
Central resource capacity theories
- seen as one central attention resource (i.e. CNS)
- requires attention given to each task
- each task is competing for demanded resources to allow optimal performance
- resources are flexible
Kahneman's Attention Theory
(example of central resource capacity theory)

He believes that there are a limited amt of resources at a given time located in the CNS coming from a pool which can vary in size based on situation, conditions of individual, and task being performed. This pool of effort can be subdivided to allow multiple activities being given attention.

More attention = More cognitive effort = more available resources
Arousal
factor that influences amt of attention capacity for a specific performance situation

Maximum amt of resources available at optimal arousal range
Arousa level determines ________ ______
capacity limits
Yerkes-Dodson law
inverted U-relation b/w performance and arousal levels
Evaluation of attention requirements of multiple tasks is impt because...
it determines if sufficient attention resources are available
3 rules used to prioritize available attention when performing multiple tasks
- allocation of ttention to ensure completion of at least one task

- allocation of attentional resources according to our enduring dispositions (the involuntary attention allocation)

- momentary intention
- self-directed
OR
- according to instruction
Novelty of a situation
one that is expected in a situation vs one that is unexpected
Meaningfulness of event
cocktail party phenomenon

- hearing our name makes that conversation more meaningful
Multiple resource theories
contend that we have several attention mechanisms, each having limited resources. each of these resource pools is specific to a component of performing skills
Sensory input
i.e. visual, proprioceptive, auditory

look at something, listen at same time

listen to something, we can feel at the same time
Response output
i can walk, while i talk

i.e. motor, verbal
dual task procedure
procedure involving assessment of the degree of interference by one task when another one is being performed simultaneously
attentional focus
directing of attention to specific characteristics in a performance environment, or to action-preparation activities
primary task
sometimes has to do with instruction

-more important thing to get done
secondary task
task used to make interference with primary task
T/F
A narrow width of focus is focusing on a few small things
False; focusing on ONE thing
Width of focus is _____ and ______, while direction of focus can be _______ or _______
Broad and narrow
external or internal
Attention switching
changing one's attention focus characteristics

can be positive or negative

i.e. playing piano and moving eyes from hands/keys to music
Action effect hypothesis
(Prinz 1997)
benefit of external focus during movement

- learning and performance of skills are optimized when the performer's attention is directed to the outcome of the action rather that the movements
automaticity
Performance of a skill (or part of a skill) without requiring attention resources
T/F
Automaticity is directly related to amount of practice
true
visual selective attention
study of attention as it relates to the use of vision in the selection of environmental info in the preparation and/or performance of an action
components of visual selective attention
assumption
focal vision
peripheral
T/F
it is not possible to make an eye movement without making a shift in attention
true
visual search
search for regulatory conditions based on the goal of action

i.e. picking up cup. we search for environmental cues to figure out the movement needed to gras the cup
feature integration theory
treisman in 1980s

during visual search, we initially group stimuli together according to their unique features, such as color and shape (automatically)

i.e. finding teammate
Attentional spotlight
finding a specific characteristic among the map areas (wide or narrow)

target "pops out"

i.e. finding a TALL teammate, rather than just any teammate
Visual search in action preparation
- 3 aspects influenced
- Action selection
- Constraining of selected action; positioning
- Timing of action initiation
3 preparation processes influenced by visual search
- open motor skill (changing environment)
- closed motor skill
-
memory
The capacity to remember information about past events or knowledge
memory (according to Tulving)
Memory is the capacity that permits organisms to benefit from past experiences
Two memory systems
1. working - day to day life
2. long-term - storing of events that can affect how we repeat actions later
Functions of memory
store info
retrieve info
Subsystems of working memory
1. phonological loop - repeating number over and over b/c cant write it down

2. visuospatial sketchpad - very short memory; taking in all info and picking out what we need after a few seconds

3. central executive - say what is impt and stores in long term or uses in next action
subsystems of long-term memory
1. Procedural memory - where we learn motor tasks

2. Semantic memory - all the knowledge we have

3. Episodic memory - specified (remembering where and what you were doing on 9/11)
short term memory processes
sensory - auditory, visual, proprio.) unaware

perceptual - things we select from sensory info that we can use) some awareness

Attentional processes - deciding among all things what info is useful and pick what is needed for next action) complete awareness
Duration of working mem
20-30 sec

unless processed or rehearsed
Capacity of short term mem
7 (+or- 2)

increased by chunking info together
Duration of long term mem
"permanent"
Capacity of LTM
"unlimited"
Procedural LTM
how to do specific activities
Semantic LTM
factual and general knowledge
Episodic LTM
unique personal events or experiences
Declaritive knowledge
knowledge that can be verbally described
Procedural knowledge
enables to perform motor skill

hard/imposs to describe verbally
Encoding
transforming info into form that can be stored in memory
Storage
placing info in long term
Rehearsal
info from working to long term
retrieval
search through long term for needed info
assess memory
explicit memory tests - looking for knowledge learned
- recall test - open ended answers
- recognition stests

implicit men tests - memorization on how to do something
- info difficult to verbalize
i.e. can't ask "how do you walk when you are outside?"
Cause of forgetting
trace decay - longer time from receiving info

proactive interference - due to prior activity of info

working mem - confusion

retroactive interference - due to info after presented info