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48 Cards in this Set

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Which glomerular disease has a prolonged onset, with severe prolonged increase in glomerular permeability to proteins?
Nephrotic syndrome
This glomerular disease is due to inflammation of the glomerulus and is associated with diffuse inflammatory chages of the glomerulus
Nephritic syndrome
Which type of glomerular disease has hematuria, red cell casts, hypertension, edema and increased BUN and creatinine
Nephritic Syndrome
accumulation of nitrogenous compounds in the blood is called what?
azotemia
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

Nephritic or nephrotic?
nephritic
Goodpasture's Syndrome

Nephritic of nephrotic?
Nephritic
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis

nephritic or nephrotic?
nephritic
glomerular disease due to changes in glomerular permeability with loss of >3.5 g of proteinuria per day
nephrotic syndrome
severe proteinuria, frothy urine, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema are signs and symptoms of which type of glomerular diseases?
Nephrotic
What is the #1 nephrotic syndrome in children?
Minimal Change Disease
What is the #1 nephrotic syndrome in adults?
Membranous GN
hematuria, azotemia, variable proteinuria, oliguria, edema, and hypertension
acute nephritic syndrome
The severest form of nephritic syndrome
acute nephritis - rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
azotemia with uremia progressing for years
chronic renal failure
muscle twitches & cramps, fatigue, decreased mental acuity, N/V, hypertension secondary to hypervolemia, pruritis, pericarditis, and occasionally uremic frost is WHAT?
uremia
What is always present in Rapidly Progressive glomerulonephritis?
CRESCENTS
Without treatment this SEVERE Glomerular injury and form of acute nephritic syndrome will cause death from renal failure in weeks to months
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Which type of RPGN is idiopathic or caused by Goodpasture's?
Type I
Which type of RPGN is idiopathic, caused by SLE, Henoch-Schonlein, or post infectious
Type II
Which type of RPGN is idiopathic, caused by Wegener's, microscopic polyangiitis, and occasionally advanced teminal polyarteritis nodosa?
Type III
What is the biopsy finding in minimal change disease?
loos of foot processes
Which nephrotic syndrome has a thickened basement membrane with subepithelial deposits of IgG and C3 complement in a "spike and dome" pattern?
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Focal and segmental sclerosis of the glomerulus that progressed to be a diffuse and global pattern that then causes chronic renal failure
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Which glomerulonephritis show a "tram track" pattern on biopsy?
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
This nephritic syndrome has a (+) ASO titer and on biopsy it shows a "lumpy-bumpy" pattern and is usually self-limited with excellent prognosis
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic syndrome that is due to anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and commonly has hemoptysis?
Goodpasture's Syndrome
This is the most common overall primary glomerular disease;f Labs show increased serum IgA
IgA Nephropathy (Berger's Disease)
In this glomerular disease you see a thick GM and mesangial growth = nodular sclerosis; it gradually progresses to chronic renal failure and ESRD
Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis
(Kimmelstiel-Wilson Syndrome)
What does Lupus nephropathy show in the glomerulus?
wire loop lesions
Basement membrane splitting in the glomerulus is what syndrome?
Alport's syndrome
What is the #1 cause of Acute Tubular necrosis (ATN)?
pre-renal acute renal failure
Muddy brown casts on urinalysis are pathognomonic for what?
ATN - acute tubular necrosis
Most cases of ATN are associated with what?
hypoperfusion
Some cases of ATN are d/t destruction of renal tubule cells secondary to tosins (TOXIC ATN) what are some causes?
1) free hemoglobin
2) myoglobin
3) ethylene glycol
4) AGs
5) amphotericin B
6) cisplatin
7) contrast media
What are the 3 types of acute renal failure (ARF) ?
pre-renal
intrinsic
post-renal
This type of ARF results in oliguria and has a BUN:Cr ratio of >20:1
What is the ARF and how do you TX it?
Pre-renal ARF
TX: IV fluids
What is the #1 cause of renal ARF?
pre-renal ARF
This type of ARF has a BUN:Cr ratio of <10:1; with elevated K, Na, Mg, and Cl as well as decreased Ca
Intrinsic ARF
approximately 3/4 of CKD cases occur secondary to what 3 diseases?
diabetes, glomerulonephritis, or hypertension
Azotemia with fatigue, nausea, decreased EPO levels, decreased active vitamin D, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemis with arrhythmia risk are features of what disease?
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
What management is required for urolithiasis?
oral and IV fluids; if unsuccessful lithotripsy is used
Most common type of kidney stone?
CALCIUM
What two urea-splitting organisms can cause a triple stone?
Proteus and staphylococcus saprophyticus
What is the staghorn calculus made of ?
Mg-NH4-Phosphate
What must a patient with a struvite also be treated with after management of the stone
ANTIBIOTICS
Gout, leukemia, and excessive consumption of purines can result in what type of kidney stone?
Uric Acid Stone
What is the source of endogenously produced uric acid?
nucleid acid to either adenosine or guanosine

adenosine to hypoxanthine and guanosine to guanine and both of those to xanthine and ultimately URIC ACID
Impaired tubular resorption of cysteine, ornithine, arginine, and lysine yielding COAL is what type of stone?
Cystine stone