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11 Cards in this Set

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Norm vs. Criterion Referenced Score
CRITERION REF: Each individual is compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage; NORM REF: Each individual is compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine.
Normative vs. Ipsative Scores
"Ipsative" means measured against itself. An ipsative result is observed as a fact, not compared to other results and then put in the context of an average or expected outcome (as is done with "normative" instruments). With an ipsative score each person thus provides his or her own frame of reference.
Empirical Criterion Keying
Developed to determine which items to include in the original MMPI, but was not used for the MMPI-2
"g factor"
Intelligence is a single general factor (Spearman)
Spearman vs. Thurstone vs. Catell vs. Gardner vs. Sternberg
GARDNER (Multiple Intelligences): 8 distinct intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, boidly-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic); STERNBERG (Triarchic Theory): focuses on process rather than product/outcome, proposed 3 aspects of intellgience (internal components, capacity to adapt to envmtl changes, ability to apply past experience to current novel problems); CATELL: fluid (ability to acquire new knowledge and solve new problems) and crystallized intelligence (knowledge and learning gained over one's lifetime); SPEARMAN: intelligence is a single general factor, or "g factor"; THURSTONE: 7 distinct primary mental abilities
WAIS-III Factors: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, Processing Speed
VCI: vocab, similarities, info; POI: pic comp, block des, matrix reas; WMI: arithm, dig span, letter-number seq (II fr from distr); PSI: dig sym-cod, sym search; VOCAB: best est of VIQ, BLOCK DESIGN: best est of PIQ; VOCAB and INFO: best "hold" tests
WISC-III Factors: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom from Distractibility, Processing Speed
VCI: info, simil, vocab, comp; POI: pict compl, pic arr, block des, obj ass; FDI: arithmetic, dig span; PSI: coding, sym search
Pattern or Scatter Analysis on WAIS or WISC
SCATTER/PATTERN ANALYSIS: looks at discrepancies between subtests; this has not been found valid for making diagnoses and can result in too many false positives (msrmt error alone might acct for differences between subtests)
When to use PIQ vs VIQ
VIQ: can underestimate intelligence of people with less education and lower SES, they are also more culturally loaded; PIQ: not appropriate for people with impaired motor fx, subtests more susceptible to effects of anxiety and depression, people with hx of substance dependence or schizophrenia have tendency for lower PIQ **VIQ tends to be compromised by L HEM damage, PIQ compromised by R HEM damage
L, F, and K on MMPI
L SCALE: "Lie" scale, high score is attempt to present self overly favorably but in naïve fashion; F SCALE: "Infrequency/Fake Bad" scale, high scores suggest psychotic process, profound distress, or attempt to appear in negative light, I.e., cry for help, very high=malingering; K SCALE: "Guardedness" scale, high scores are more sophisticated attempt to present self in good light, K correction used to adjust some of the clinical scales for guardedness
Confabulation on Rorschach
Generalizing from area of the bloth, e.g., "this is a claw, so it must be a lobster," typically seen in people with cognitive deficits, such as MR or brain damage