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20 Cards in this Set

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Skinner, Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike
Pavlov & Watson=CLASSICAL ; Skinner & Thorndike=OPERANT; (Pavlov=Dog; Thorndike=Law of Effect: random bx followed by reward become stronger and those followed by punishment weaken)
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
CLASSICAL=aka Respondent or Stimulus-Response; how we learn involuntary bx/responses (we learn new bx when things are connected/paired; responses are automatic and involuntary); OPERANT=aka Skinnerian conditioning or Instrumental; explains voluntary bx (bx that "operates" on envmt; posits that we learn as a result of reward and punishment)
Unconditioned vs. Conditioned Stimulus/Response
UC->UR: no learning has yet taken place and link is inborn and automatic; CS->CR: results from experience and learning; How is a CR learned? US paired w/NS until it can elicit UR by itself; the CR typically mimics the UR but is of a lesser magnitude
Backward vs. Standard Conditioning
BACKWARD: US precedes the NS; no learning or conditioning occurs; STANDARD: CS(NS) precedes the US by a short interval and overlaps into the presentation of US so that US appears to be contingent on CS presentation
Stimulus (Mediated) Generalization vs. Response Generalization
"STIMULUS GENERALIZATION: (classical) aka Mediated Generalization; subject automatically generalizes from CS to other neutral stimuli and has same CR (e.g., Albert scared of white rate, now scared of other white animals too); STIMULUS GENERALIZATION: (operant) subject begins to emit target bx in the presence of stimuli similar to but not exactly the same as the discriminative stimulus (e.g., pigeon gets food when pecks to green light, will now also peck to blue light in hopes of food); RESPONSE GENERALIZATION: (operant) performing a bx that is similar but not identical to one that was previously reinforced (e.g., dog gets treat for trick, will now try another trick in hope for treat)
Classical vs. Operant Extinction
CLASSICAL EXTINCTION: repeatedly presenting CS without the US; OPERANT EXTINCTION: ceasing to reinforce bx that was previously reinforced (initial response burst)
Spontaneous Recovery vs. Response Burst
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: (classical) During extinction trials, following a rest period, the CR to the CS often briefly reappears but will again vanish if extinction trials continue; RESPONSE BURST: (operant) During extinction trials, at first witholding reinforcement will result in an increase in the behavior but will eventually diminish without reinforcement
Habituation vs. Satiation
HABITUATION: (classical) subject becomes accustomed to and less responsive to US after repeated exposure and it stops eliciting UR (e.g., person gets used to passing trains and no longer startles and wakes at night); SATIATION: (operant) reinforcer loses its value through overuse (e.g., through continuous reinforcement for every occurence of the bx)
Stimulus Discrimination and Experimental Neurosis
STIMULUS DICRIMINATION: (classical) subject learns to discriminate between two neutral stimuli because one has been paired with US while the other has not; EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS: (classical): if the stimulus discriminations are too difficult, the subject may become overwhelemd & agitated and may no longer be successful with earlier discrimation either (like a breakdown)
Higher Order Conditioning
HIGHER ORDER CONDITIONING: (classical) a deliberate process in which the CS is paired with a NS that is typically unrelated until eventually the NS becomes a CS and also elicits the CR (e.g., tone (CS1) repeatedly paired with flash of light (NS) until animal salivates to the light); flash of light=CS2--second order conditioning; third order conditioning involves pairing of a third NS; impossible to condition beyond 3rd level
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
REINFORCEMENT: increases the target bx (brings subject to more desirable state); PUNISHMENT: dcreases the target bx (brings subject to less desirable state)
Positive/negative Reinforcement vs. Positive/negative Punishment
Continuous vs. Intermittent Reinforcement
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT: reinforcing every occurrence of the bx; INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT: every occurrence of bx is NOT reinf; subject is reinf for how often they emit target bx (ratio schedule: for every 2 pecks, 1 pellet) or if bx was peformed w/in certain interval of time (interval schedule: if pigeon has pecked any time w/in 60 seconds)
VR/FR/VI/FI Schedules: Operant strength during acquisition, extinction, scalloping
FI: LOW response rate during most of interval and increases significantly at end; VI: MODERATE response rate w/o pause; FR: MODERATE TO HIGH response rate; may pause after reinfc; VR: HIGH response w/o pause; ACQUISITION: VR=greatest operant strength->FR->VI->FI; RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION: VR->FR->VI->FI; PATTERN OF RESPONDING: Variable schedules=more uninterrupted bx (Smooth graph); Fixed schedules=more interruptions (Scalloped graph)
Superstitious Behavior vs. Pseudoconditioning
SUPERSTITIOUS BX: (operant) accidental or non-contingent reinforcement (e.g., reinforcement applied in arbitrary, inconsistent fashion that is not linked to the emission of the target bx); PSEUDOCONDITIONING: (classical) accidental pairing of NS with US or CS that elicits same CR (e.g., dog salivates when light to room 1st turned on); may be caused by either inadvertent pairing or heightened arousal
Chaining vs. Shaping
CHAINING: each bx in sequence is mildly reinforced and serves as a cue (discrimant stimulus) to perform next bx in the chain w/major reinforcement at end of chain; SHAPING: teaching a subject to emit desired bx by reinforcing on ongoing basis as she gets closer and closer to desired bx (successively reinforced for bx that "approximate" the desired bx; uses prompting)
Thinning vs. Fading
THINNING: (operant) changing schedule of reinforcement from continuous to intermittent after acquisition to prevent satiation; FADING: (operant) gradual reduction in prompting when teaching a new behavior (e.g., teaching manners and reducing prompting from "what do you say" to no more than a look)
Behavioral Contrast
BEHAVIORAL CONTRAST: two bx were intitially reinforced and then only one is reinforced--typically the bx being reinforced increases in frequency while the bx no longer being reinforced decreases in frequency
Premack Principle
PREMACK PRINCIPLE: a bx that is freely performed at a high frequency typically has strong reinforcing value--"Grandma's Rule": a high frequency bx is used to reinforce a low frequency bx (eat your spinach and you can go out to play)
Reciprocal Determinism
RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM: (Social Learning Theory) Interactive triad of person, his/her behavior, and the environment operate togethe rto regulate an individual's bx (e.g., car accident victim files claim of injury in anticipation of money, receives reinforcement, becomes less active, develops real pain)