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25 Cards in this Set

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atom
smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means
element
substance composed of a single type of atom
compound
substance that is made of more than one kind of atom
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
ion
electrically charged atom or molecule
cohesion
between substances of the same kind
adhesion
attraction between different substances
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
acid
compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
base
compound that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
carbohydrate
organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; used by living things as an energy source
lipid
one of a family of nonpolar organic molecules that are not soluble in water; includes fats, phospholipids, and steroids
protein
organic compound made of amino acids
amino acid
organic molecule that is the building block of proteins
nucleic acid
organic molecule made or nucleotides; stores hereditary information for cell function; DNA or RNA
nucleotide
subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
DNA
double-stranded, helical nucleic acid that stores hereditary information
RNA
a type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
ATP
organic molecule composed of a base, a sugar; and three phosphate groups that acts as the main energy currency of cells
energy
capacity for doing work; the ability to move or change matter
activation energy
amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
enzyme
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
active site
site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
substrate
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
monosaccharide
Any of several carbohydrates, such as tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis