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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Counterconditioning vs. Extinction
COUNTERCONDITIONING: reciprocal inhibition--2 incompatible responses can't be experienced at same time (stronger response will inhibit the weaker)-Aversive Conditioning (negative response paired with bad bx, Systematic Desensitization (relaxation paired with fear), Sensate Focus (pleasure vs anxiety), Assertiveness Training; EXTINCTION: presenting CS w/o the US over several trials-Flooding, Implosive Therapy (imagination only, psychosexual themes)
Aversive Conditioning vs. Systematic Desensitization
AVERSIVE CONDITIONING: pair bad behavior with stronger, negative response (imagination=covert sensitization), best for "deviant" behaviors (substance abuse, fetishes); SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION: pair situation with relaxation response instead of anxiety (best for phobias)
Flooding vs. Implosive Therapy
FLOODING: presenting CS w/o US (prolonged exposure w/response prevention, best for OCD, specific phobias, agoraphobia); IMPLOSIVE THERAPY: imagination only, interpreting psychosexual themes
Primary, Secondary, and Generalized Reinforcers
PRIMARY: reinforce everyone at all ages in all cultures (e.g., food); SECONDARY: acquire reinforcing value through training or experience (e.g., praise); GENERALIZED: not inherently reinforcing but give access to other reinforcers (e.g., money, tokens)
Self-Control Procedures: Self-Monitoring vs. Stimulus Control
Person administers reinforcement to him/herself; SELF MONITORING: keep dtailed record of what one's done; STIMULUS CONTRO: narrowing range of stimuli that elicit particular bx (e.g., eating only at specific times in specific place and dvplg incompatible responses, e.g., take a walk when hungry)
Optimizing Effects of Punishment
Punishment should be delivered at maximum intensity right from the start, the punishment should be certain, and there should be little delay between undesirable bx occurrence and punishment; in sequence of undesirable bx, punishment should be delivered early rather than late in response sequence; one should make alternative routes to reinforcement clear
Escape vs. Avoidance Learning
ESCAPE: aversive stimulus cannot be avoided but can be stopped by emitting desired bx; AVOIDANCE: one can entirely avoid aversive stimulus by emitting desired bx in time
Symbolic vs. Live vs. Participant Modeling
SYMBOLIC MODELING: aka Filmed Modeling, observing film of model enjoying progressively more intimate interaction w/feared object; LIVE MODELING: aka In Vivo, person observes live model engage in graduated interactions w/feared object; PARTICIPANT MODELING: live modeling plus contact w/model who guides person in approaching feared stimulus
Kohler vs. Tolman
KOHLER: one of the earliest critics of pure behavioral models of learning (insight studies w/chimps; learning); TOLMAN: behaviorally-oriented
Beck vs. Ellis
BECK: Cognitive Therapy-emphasizes empirical hypothesis testing as means of changing existing beliefs, collaborative, Socratic questioning, maladaptive cognitive triad; ELLIS: Rational-Emotive Therapy-emotional disturbances thought to result from irrational beliefs, direct instuction, persuasion, logical disputation, active, confrontative
Cognitive Triad of Depression
Negative view of self, world, future
Self-Instructional Training vs. Stress Inoculation
SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TX: combines modeling and graduated practice w/elements for RET, good for ADHD; therapist modeling->therapist verbalization->patient verbalization->pt silently talks through task->ind task perf; STRESS INOCULATION TRAINING: good for anxiety, stress, anger, med problems, Education & cognitive prep->coping skills acquisition->app of skills in imagination and in vivo
Protocol Analysis
Procedure used when person is learning taks and asked to describe aloud the steps being taken to solve the task (way to gain access to people's problem solving strategies)
Rehm's Self-Control Theory of Depression
Attempts to integrate cognitive and behavioral models of dpression->believes reinforcement can be self-generated rather than from external sources; believes depression and low bx rate as result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment
Pleasure vs. Reality Principle
PLEASURE PRINCIPLE: Id (seeks immediate gratification); REALITY PRINCIPLE: Ego (alert to real world and consequences of bx) *Superego=embodies the ideal, standard of perfection
Primary vs. Secondary Process
PRIMARY PROCESS: dreams, hallucinations, an urgent attempt at tension reduction; SECONDARY PROCESS: thinking ,speaking, focus on meeting demands of reality and ability to delay gratification
Repression and Other Defense Mechanisms
REPRESSION: most basic and commonly used, forcing disturbing impulses out of CS, underlies all other defenses; REGRESSION (Borderline): retreat to bx of earlier, less demanding stage of dvpt; PROJECTION (Paranoid): seeing one's UC urges in another's bx; DISPLACEMENT: transference of emotions from orig obj to substitute (phobia); REACTION FORMATION: engaging in opp actions from id's urges; INTELLECTUALIZATION (Schizoid): RATIONALIZATION (Narcissistic): SUBLIMATION: finding socially acceptable ways of discharging energy from UC imp
Transference and Countertransference
TRANSFERENCE: pt-> therapist; COUNTERTRANSFERENCE: therapist->pt (can be positive or negative)
Ego Psychology vs. Object Relations vs. Neo-Freudian vs. Self Psychology
EGO PSYCH: focus on ego's capacity for integration and adaptation (Hartmann, A. Freud, Erikson, Kris, Rappaport); OBJ REL: capacity to have mutually satisfying rltnshps--focus on childhood relations (Klein, Winnicott, Mahler, Fairbairn, Guntrip); NEO-FREUDIAN: impact of socio-cultural factors in determining personality (Sullvian, Horney, Fromm); SELF PSYCH: dvpt of self basd on infant interactions w/caregivers, empathic attunement, primary narcissism (Kohut)
Defensive vs. Adaptive Functions of the Ego
Classical psychoanalysis: Ego is helpless rider of the id horse TO Ego psychology: Ego guides a person's capacity to master life
Object Permanence vs. Object Constancy
MAHLER: Object constancy=ability to maintain image of mother when she is not present and to unify good and bad into whole representation; PIAGET: Object permanence=ability to recognize object still exists when not visible
Focus on social and cultural factors
Teleological vs. Deterministic
TELEOLOGICAL: behavior is determined by the future; DETERMINISTIC: behavior is determined by the past
Social interest, struggle for superiority & mastery, motivated by social (aggressive) rather than sexual urges, looks for mistaken goals and faulty assumptions, STEP (parenting training w/logical and natural bx consequences)
Archetypes, personal and collective unconscious, transference, adult focus
Jung vs. Freud
JUNG: more focused on adult dvpt, neurosis=striving for psychological maturity (individuation), teleological, direct focusin in sessions, real relationship level; FREUD: more focused on infantile dvpt, deterministic, free association, utilizes transference
Phenomenological Perspective
Therapist must enter patient's subjective world
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of basic needs twds ultimate health and a fully spontaneous expression of the self=self-actualization
Empathy, Unconditional Positive Regard, Congruence
ROGERS: Client/Person-Centered Therapy=Empathy, Warmth (uncond positive regard), Genuineness (congruence of therapist)
Introjection, Projection, Retroflection, Deflection, and Confluence
PERLS: Gestalt Therapy=INTROJECTION (take info in whole, compliant & gullible), PROJECTION (project feelings onto others), RETROFLECTION (turn back on self what one wants to do to others), DEFLECTION (distance self from feelings), CONFLUENCE (lack of awareness of differentiation btwn self and others, in attempt to avoid conflict)
Reality Therapy
Focus on Responsibility; key element is Control theory (we create inner "need-satisfying" world that satisfies our needs, not necessarily reflective or real world)
Subjective experiential change, anesthesia, pain control
Biofeedback Techinques
EMG (Electromyography): measures surface muscle tension-tension, joint pain, neuromuscular rehab, EEG (Electroencephalography): measures brain waves-hyperactivity & seizures, GSR (Galvanic Skin Response), measures skin conductivity or sweat-Gen Anx, hypertension, THERMAL BIOFEEDBACK: (temperature) measures peripheral skin temperature-migraines and Reynaud's disease
Biofeedback Definition
Focus on decreased arousal of the Sympathetic nervous system; commonly used in conjunction w/relaxation training
Feminist Therapy
Focus on socio-political climate, egalitarian relationship; sexism viewed as underlying cause of problems; reframe symtpoms as response to envmt
Negative vs. Positive Feedback Loop
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP: decreases deviation in system, w/result of maintaining status quo (e.g., return to previous dynamics after bad event); POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP: increases deviaton or change (e.g., lasting change due to therapy)
Object Relational Family Therapy
Framo; focuses on transferences and projections between couples or family members (people project unwanted elements of themselves onto others)
Boundaries and Hierarchy
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY: BOUNDARIES=healthy: clear and firm w/flexibility; unhealthy=too rigid/disengaged or too diffuse/enmeshed; HIERACHY=healthy: strong parental coalition; unhealthy=triangulation, detouring (identified pt), stable coaltion
Coalition vs. Triangulation vs. Joining
(STRUCTURAL FT) COALITON: (stable type), one parent unites w/child against other parent; TRIANGULATION: child caught in middle of parents' conflict w/each parent demanding that s/he side with them; JOINING: what therapist does at onset of therapy, attempts to understand family dynamics by adopting their interactional style
Disengaged vs. Enmeshed
Structural FT BOUNDARIES: Disengaged (rigid) and Enmeshed (diffuse)
Double Bind vs. Paradox
COMMUNICATIONS FT (MRI GROUP): DOUBLE BIND: damned if you, damned if you don't, and no escape or ability to point out the inconsistency; PARADOXICAL INTERVENTION: prescribing the symptom
Multigenerational Transmission Process and Undifferentiated Ego Mass
BOWEN FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY: MULTIGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION PROCESS: pathology in family repeated throughout generations; UNDIFFERENTIATED EGO MASS: emotional oneness in famihat exists and shifts in definited pattern
Social Learning Family Therapy
PATHOLOGY: maladaptive bx rewarded and reinforced, deficient rewards, and communication deficits
Most effective components of groups
Cohesiveness (rapport), catharsis, and self-understanding
Crisis intervention vs. Brief therapy
CRISIS INTERVENTION: focus on crisis itself and restoring pt to previous level of fx (before crisis); BRIEF THERAPY: focus on helping pt attain level of improved fx (based on pathology)
Client centered case consultation, consultee centered case consultation, program centered administrative consultation, consultee centered administrative consultation
CT CENT CASE CONSULT: helps consultee w/individual case (e.g., dvpt tx plan for child w/GAD); CONSULTEE CENT CASE CONSULT: helps consultee w/difficulties working with multiple pts (e.g., therapist w/countertransf to borderlines); CONSULTEE CENT ADMIN CONSULT: helps consultee w/own difficulties which limit effectiveness in insituting program change; PROGRAM CENT ADMIN CONSULT: focus on developing, expanding, or modifying a program
Primary vs. Secondary vs. Tertiary prevention
PRIMARY PREVENTION: prevent onset or occurrence of disease; SECONDARY PREVENTION: focus on early identification and prompt tx of existing illness/disorder; TERTIARY PREVENTION: focuses on reducing residual effects of chronic disability
Summative vs. Formative Evaluation
FORMATIVE EVALUATION: evaluating program on an ongoing basis as it is being implemented; SUMMATIVE EVALUATION: program evaluation that only occurs at the end of the program
Effects of Divorce
Age impacts rx (3-6 yo: feel responsible, 7-12 decrease school performance, adolescents, feel they could have prevented it, feel hurt and critical), recovery takes 3-5 yrs for children; up to 1/3 experience lasting trauma; better outcome w/divorce than living w/conflict; girls initially appear to adjust beter but more vulnerable in adolescen or if mother remarries; younger children adapt better than older; adult children slightly more depressed, more marital problems, poorer health, lower SES
Meta-Analysis: Effect Size (Smith and Glass)
Average Effect size of 0.85 in comparing treated and untreated invidividuals
Minorities in Treatment: dropouts
African Americans tend to terminate earlier than Caucasians (findings inconclusive and may be SES related)
Best Option for Violent Husband
Arrest of the husband