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30 Cards in this Set

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Divine Right of Kings
Theory that a king was chosen by God. Going against the king was like going against God.
Cardinal Richelive
Chief minister to Loius 13th and laid the foundation of absolutism and ruled for him while he was a boy (crowned at 9) Believed that dueling of Nobles should be inhibited because it gave them too much honor.
The Fronde
Revolt of Nobles, caused by Mazarin who wanted to take power from the Nobles was Cardinal afer Richelive caused because he was not as charismatic so it caused a revolt.
Test Act
"Local road blocks" road blocks where they would place a cross of catholic symbol on the ground and make them step on it to prove they werent Catholic. Anyone in political office or military had to be anglican
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Isaac Newton- all physical objects in the universe connected and moved through gravity and provided 3 laws of motion in his book.
Masonic Lodges
birthplace of Democratic structure everyone was equal, but had to own property, most socially level, structure is more important than the ideas that come from.
Calas Affairs (Highlight of Enlightenment)
Voltaire takes the case to the courts and publishes his Treatise of Tolerance which caused authorites to investigate the case again.they change the decision and realize the need for reform of the judiciary.
Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu influential book and view on religion that explained the internal tensions of the enlightenment.No set of political laws could apply to all peoples at all times in all places.
War of Austrian Succession
fredrick 2nd seized the province of Silesia in eastern Germany. upset the continental balance of power
The Great Fear
Peasants believed Nobles were going to try to take over their "great harvest" so they revolted and burned their houses and looked for any documents that contained any names with feudal obligations
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Said priests had to swear an oath of loyaly to France but angered priests because they only swore their loyalty to God.
Constitution of Year 3
Ended the Revolution Guaranteed the economic and political supremacy of the middle class.Established the 5 man Directory until the coup of 18. Bicameral legislature. Government retained power to limit freedom of the press and of association.
Levellers
opponents of Oliver Cromwell who believed in democracy (life,liberty, property) wanted a constitution and right for everyone to vote.
The Long Parliament
Land owner and merchant classes represented in Parliament disagreed with the kings ways:religious policies, didnt trust wife
Bill of Rights
William and Mary become co-rulers of France. Limited the power of the government and garunteed civil liberties of english priveledged classes.
1. No law can be suspended by the king
2. No taxes raised without the consent of parliament
3.No army can be built without the consent of Parliament
4. You cant be arrested unless they tell you why they are doing so
Nicolaus Copernicus
17th century "Heliocentric universe" thought that planets revolve around the sun not the other way around. Book was banned by the church. Afraid to publish his book for fear of his life.
Galileo
First person to use a telescope to look at the stars, discovered the four moons of Jupiter proving not everything revolves around the earth.First to experiment with physics--insisted everything that was knowledgable could be proven with math. 1633-tried and convicted by inquisition by the church. Once convicted he retells of all his work (smart move) his work is banned. 1820 catholic church bans the heliocentric universe.
Francis Bacon
Englishman of many accomplishments-lawyer, a high royal official, author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses. BELIEVED EUROPEANS NEEDED TO STOP LOOKING AT THE PAST AND LOOK FOR NEW OBSERVATIONS-INDUCTIVE REASONING.
Salons
Social event wher nobles, high political figures, and commoners discussed intellectual conversations and came together to speak as equals-witty conversation
A Treatise on Tolerance
Voltaire's book- saying the government should not be able to establish a national religion and that most acts of crime are out of religion.
Letters on England
Written by Voltaire-- his admiration for England because they had a written Constitution, equality before law, moderate taxes, and Toleration.
The Social Contract (Jean-Jacques Rousseau)1762
Outlines the kind of political structure he believed would end evils of politics and society. Suggests a society itself is more important than its individual members.
Joseph II (Austria)(best example of Absolute Enlightenment)
Ruled along side his mother before becoming king. He was a stand up guy that tried to fix the economy and was most famous for abolishing serfdom. Absolute equality of taxation, got rid of torture, gave liberty to press, practiced religious toleration, gave Jews equal rights and duties.Disliked by nobles because he made them equal.
Junkers
GERMAN NOBLE LANDLORDS had the right to demand obedience from their serfs.
Cahiers de doleances
List of grievances representatives brought to royal palace.
Tennis Court Oath
King shuts down town meeting hall so they go to the royal tennis courts and take an oath "Tennis Court Oath" that they will not be disbanded until there is a new Constitution of France is formed to create new Gov.
The Bastille
a fortress that held prisoners and ammunition-once held political prisoners. Mob of Parisians stormed the fortress looking for gunpowder and weapons
September Massacres
People of Paris Commune executed/murdered 1,200 prisoners in the city jails because they were counter revolutionary. Leads to the Convention to sign a new Constitution.
October Days
7,000 women march from France to Versailles for the price essentials (bread) being too expensive--national guard saves royal family from the mob.
August 10 1792
Mob attacks the Kings palace because Paris Communeuses forcefulness and intimidation to gain dominance of the city--crowd surround the assembly and the kings asks for protection so the assembly arrests him in order to protect him. The crowd fought and slaughtered the royal swiss guards.