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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
piece of information we gather using our senses-our sight, hearing, smell, touch
observation
a testable explanation
hypothesis
a logical statement about what will happen if the hypothesis is correct
prediction
a procedure designed to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions
experiment
the factor of interest
variable
group that receives the experimental treatment
experimental group
group that does not receive the experimental treatment
control group
information that a scientist gathers during an experiment which is often in numeric form
data
when using experiments to answer questions is impossible or unethical scientists test predictions by examining...
correlations
the collection and classification of data that are in the form of numbers
statistics
the number obtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic and dividing this sum by the number of individuals
mean
the relative arrangement of the members of a statistical population
distribution
the chance that something will happen
probability
the group of individuals or events selected to represent the population
sample
the probability of an unwanted outcome
risk
representations of objects or systems
models
a verbal or graphical explanation for how a system works or is organized
conceptual model
one or more equations that represents the way a system or process works
mathematical model
principals or standards we consider important
values
a conceptual model that provides a systematic process for making decisions
decision-making model
energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when a plant uses sunlight to make sugar molecules by
photosynthesis
an organism that makes its own food
producer
an organism that gets its energy from eating other organisms
consumer
some consumers get their food by breaking down dead organisms and are called
decomposers
process of breaking down food to yield energy is called
cellular respiration
a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another
food chain
shows many feeding relationship that are possible in an ecosystem
food web
each step in the transfer of energy through a food chain or food web in an ecosystem
trophic level
a process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere land water and organisms
carbon cycle
the only organisms that can fiz atmospheric nitrogen into chemical compounds are a few species of bacteria
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
process in which nitrogen is cycled between the atmosphere bacteria and other organisms
nitrogen cycle
the movement of phosphorus form the environment to organisms and then back to the environment
phosporus cycle
a gradual process of change and replacement of the types of species in a community
ecological succession
type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before
primary succession
more common type of succession, occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed
secondary succession
the first organisms to colonize any newly available are and begin the process of ecological succession
pioneer species
final and stable community
climax community
all the members of a species living in the same place at the same time
population
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
density
the relative distribution or arrangement of its individuals within a given amount of space
dispersion
a change in the size of a population over a given period of time is that population's
growth rate
the rate that is limited by the max number of offspring that each member of the population can produce
reproductive potential
when the populations grow faster and faster
exponential growth
the max population that the ecosystem can support
carrying capacity
the unique role of a species within an ecosystem is its
niche
a relationship in which different individuals or populations attempt to use the same limited resource
competition
the interaction of a predator and prey
predation
the relationship between the parasite and its host
parasitism
a close relationship between two species in which each species provides a benefit to the other
mutualism
a relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited
commensalism
a relationship in which two organisms live in close association is called
symbiosis
the study of populations but most often refers to the study of human populations
demography
the distribution of ages in a specific population at a certain time
age structure
the percentage of members of a group that are likely to survive to any given age
survivorship
the number of babies born each year per 1,000 women in a population
fertility rate
movement of individuals between areas
migration
average number of years a person is likely to live
life expectancy
a model that describes how these changes can occur
demographic model
the basic facilities and services that support a community
infrastructure
land that can be used to grow crops
arable land
which means that more people are living in cities than in rural areas
urbanization
countries that show few signs of development and in some cases have increasing death rates, while births remain high.
least developed countries