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125 Cards in this Set

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Ponzo Illusion
The two lines are the same size but we perceive them as different we have depth cues that make it look three d, we rely on depth perception to gauge size
Moon Illusion
Biggwe on horizon than overhead, depth cues indicate far away when on the horizon but that’s not available when its directly overhead, one looks farther away but same difference and same image in retina, to account we make the one that looks farther bigger
Akinetopsia
can’t perceive motion
What is the cocktail party effect?
The ability to focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party or other loud setting
Early selection
Theory in that we can choose the stimuli to which we will attend before we process their basic features
Late selection
that people take in sensory info process it and then select which aspects of the stimuli should be attended after processing it, attention occurs when something enter awareness
Is all info analyzed?
All info analyzed regardless of whether it was attended to or ignored
What is the Stroop effect?
The color thing harder to say red if it is written in blue
What is inattention blindness?
Not noticing the gorilla
What is change blindness?
The door
Damage to what brain region results in Neglect?
Parietal lesion, patients fail to acknowledge objects or events exist in the hemispace opposite their lesion
sensory memory
memory for bried information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form, there are two types visual and auditory, allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations
short-term memory
A limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time, temporary buffer consists of our fleeting thoughts
working memory
An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use there are threee components: central executive which is the boss and retrieves infro from LTM, phonological loop-encodes auditory information and is active when you read speak and repeatvisuospatial sketch pad-process visual info
How are words process
Words processed by how the sound rather than by what they mean
Ponzo Illusion
The two lines are the same size but we perceive them as different we have depth cues that make it look three d, we rely on depth perception to gauge size
Moon Illusion
Biggwe on horizon than overhead, depth cues indicate far away when on the horizon but that’s not available when its directly overhead, one looks farther away but same difference and same image in retina, to account we make the one that looks farther bigger
Akinetopsia
can’t perceive motion
What is the cocktail party effect?
The ability to focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party or other loud setting
Early selection
Theory in that we can choose the stimuli to which we will attend before we process their basic features
Late selection
that people take in sensory info process it and then select which aspects of the stimuli should be attended after processing it, attention occurs when something enter awareness
Is all info analyzed?
All info analyzed regardless of whether it was attended to or ignored
What is the Stroop effect?
The color thing harder to say red if it is written in blue
What is inattention blindness?
Not noticing the gorilla
What is change blindness?
The door
Damage to what brain region results in Neglect?
Parietal lesion, patients fail to acknowledge objects or events exist in the hemispace opposite their lesion
sensory memory
memory for bried information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form, there are two types visual and auditory, allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations
short-term memory
A limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time, temporary buffer consists of our fleeting thoughts
working memory
An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use there are threee components: central executive which is the boss and retrieves infro from LTM, phonological loop-encodes auditory information and is active when you read speak and repeatvisuospatial sketch pad-process visual info
How are words process
Words processed by how the sound rather than by what they mean
Long-term memory-
The relatively permanent storage of information, nearly limitedless (duration and capacity differ from short term)
memory span
Memory span is about seven items plus or minus two, varies among individuals, the number of correct items people can typically immediately recall from a sequence of items
chunking
grouping things into meaningful units, the more efficiently you chunk the better you remember
proactive
when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information
retroactive interference
New information inhibits our ability to remember old information
declarative memory
The cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory, knowledge that can be declared, content of memory
procedural memory
A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral memory, motor memory like riding a bike
explicit memory
process of memory, the processes involved when people remember specific information, the info retrieved is declarative
implicit memory
The process by which people show enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without awareness they are remembering anything, this is classical conditioning, ie driving while daydreaming
encoding
The processing of information so that it can be stored, experiences are transformed to codes
storage
The retention of encoded representation over time that correspond to some change in the nervous system that registers an event
retrieval
The act of recalling or remembering stored information in order to use it
primacy/recency
We can remember 2 things the best what we see first and what we see last
priming
the improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus as a result of its having been previously observed
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
When people experience great frustration as they try to recall specific words that are somewhat obscure
mnemonic
a memory tool
repetition priming
The improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced
forgetting/decay
The inability to retrieve memory from long term storage
flashbulb memory
Vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of surprising, consequential and emotionally arousing event
consolidation
A hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long term memory
, absentmindedness
the inattentive or shallow encoding of events
cryptomnesia
A type of misapprpriation that occurs when people think they have come up with a new idea, yet have only retrieved a stored idea and failed to match that to the correct source
suggestibility
The development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
confabulation
The false recollection of episodic memory
How many items can be held in short-term memory?
Seven plus or minus two
How long can I hold info in STM?
20 to 30 sec and then will be lost if not rehearsed
What is the modal model?
The three stage memory system that involves, sensory which needs to attention to become short term memory which needs rehearsal to become long term memory
Retrograde Amnesia
inability to recollect the past
Anterograde Amnesia-
Complete inability to lean and retain across a delay new facts and events about the world
Whats the deal with H.M
HM could still learn and be classically conditioned, he could get better at playing the piano, but he would tell you he had never done it before HMs issues are solely for memory, but he has long term memory from his childhood and short term memory he can have a conversation, he can acquire and express skilled performance bilateral damage to the hippocampus impairs declaritive memory, but spares implicit/ procedural, this shows there are multiple memory system
What is the serial position effect?
The ability to recall iterms from a list depends on order of presentation with iterms presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle
What’s the difference between episodic and semantic memory?
Episodic memory are those from one’s personal past and semantic memories are memory for knowledge about the world
What is the difference between implicit and explicit memory?
Implicit memory occurs with out deliberate effort
What is state-dependent memory? Why do state-dependent learning effects
occur?
Mood/state can affect, . enhancement of memory when there is a match between internal states during encoding and recall. If drunk can’t remember where keys are when sober, but if drunk you can
What is encoding specificity?
Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can trigger memory for the experience later ir scuba divers that learned underwater remembered the info better underwater
Which is better for memory, rote rehearsal or elaboration?
Maintence involves simply repeating the item over and over gain while elaborative means encoding it in more meaningful ways such as thinking about the item conceptually or deciding where it refers to us, link knowledge from long term memory
What are the temporal stages of memory?
The medial temporal lobes are important for consolidation and declaritive has hippocampus, amygdala, hippocampus for declarative, spatial memory Frontal lobes are involved with many things including episodic, working, spatial, time, encoding and retrival
What does HERA stand for? Is it right or wrong? What is a more plausible
model for frontal lobe involvement in memory
Hemispherical encoding retrieval asymmetry the left frontal lobes were more active during episodic encoding and right was more active during episodic retrieval however this might simply be due to the tasks , verbal would activate left, unknown a=objects would activate right
What is childhood amnesia?
Most people can not remember specifics before the age of three, immature frontal lobes
What is LTP?
Long term potention the strengthening on synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more eaily activated
What is an intrusion error?
Knowledge is intruding into recall, we infer things
What is a schema? Is it good or bad for memory?
Generic knowledge about how things unfold in general ie when you go to the dentist, we use it to fill in the gaps that result from inattention or forgetting, it causes e confusion, its good but can later memories
What is a leading question? How does it impact memory?
Intereference ie the cars How fast were the cars going when they crashed vs when they hit
What is source confusion?
We are often able to remember things we have learned even though we are mistaken about where or when we learned the facts ie Ronald raegan describing his war experience in europe
What did the video with Alan Alda demonstrate?
We add stuff in, Alan Alda new he had not seen some of the stuff but still believed he had seen it because he had seen pictures
What is the misinformation effect?
Memories can be alter after the fact by suitable suggestions or questioning
Know about Eyewitness testimony
Eyewitness accounts are generally unreliable the students could not identify the man
Know about false memories and children
Can mislead a child to recall things that never happened, memories can be implanted, ie getting lost in a shopping mall
Know about hypnosis and memory
The girl in the video remembered being woken up after hypnosis even though it never happened
What are repressed memories? Are the reliable?
Memories that the brain chooses not remember, can often be implanted by therapists, but they could be reliable, a woman was made to believe she had killed a baby
analogical representations-
A mental representation that has some of the phsycial characteristics of the object: analogous to it ie a map
symbolic representations
An abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical feature of an object ie violins
concept,
A mental representation that groups or categorizes objects events or relations about common themes, concepts can be mental categories ie fruits instruments and mental representation ie bigger than, allow us to organize so we don’t have to store individually
deductive reasoning
form of reasoning in which logic is used todraw a specific conclusion from given premises, decuded from a set of more general to get more specific ie if a is true and b=a etc
inductive reasoning
A form of reasoning in which we develop general rules after observing specific instances determining general from specifics ie sciencitific method does thing
availability heuristic
Making a decision based on the answer that comes most easily to mind, most available answer can be useful but create bias ie words the r
heuristic
shortcuts in problem solving
representative heuristic
A rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category, can lead to faulty info if you don’t take all into account, don’t pay attention to base rate ie Helena sounds more like a dr so we rule out mailwoman
affective forecasting
predicting how they will feel in the future, we sort of suck at this
confirmation bias-
A tendency to search for and believe evidence that fits our existing views, it’s a natural tendency, we focus on info we want to hear and disregard the rest
framing
The effect of presentation on how information is perceived, the way we present it can change the way we see it ie if 200 will live vs if 400 will die
restructuring
A new way of thinking about a problem that aids it solution can lead to aha
mental set
a problem solving strategy that has worked in the past, we tend to persist with this
intelligence-,
The human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges
mental age
An assessment of a child’s intellectual standing relative to that of his or her peers, determined by a comparison of the child’s test score with average ago of other
IQ, general intelligence, -
The number computed by dividing a child’s estimated mental age by a child’s chronological age and multiplying by 100, most are around 100
g,-general intellience
the idea gthat one general factor underlies all mental abilities, IG underlies this, most agree there is some g, but other forms of intelligence exist
fluid intelligence
Information processing in novel or complex circumstances, info processing especially in novel circumstances ie reasoning,drawing analogies more like working memory
crystallized intelligence
Knowledge acquired through experience and thability to use that knowledge more like long term
multiple intelligences
The idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains
emotional intelligence
A form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive understand manage and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions, being able to mage frustration
What are three main categories of problems? Be able to identify examples.
Arrangment, inducing structure, transformation, the pedulum thing
Arrangement: a problem which requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specified criterion ie anagrams, transformation problems require changing the initial state through a sequence of operation until it matches the goal state ie tower of hanoi
Inducing structure is a problem that requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations ie finding pattern in number sequence
What is insight? Is there evidence we use insight?
Sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem, yes people generally rate themselves as not solving the puzzle then suddenly solve
What is functional fixedness? Give example
Tendency to perceive object in terms of its most common use ie the hammer for a pendulum or box for matches
What is means-end analysis
Will this lead me where I want to go
What are subgoals?
Smaller goals that a task can be broken down into ie the tower of Hanoi, very important
What are heuristics?
Short cuts or rules of theumb that people typically use during inductive reasoning and decision making, minimizes the needed amount of thinking and thus valuable
What is expected value?
The average value as determined by combining the value of events with their probability of occurnence not good in gambling
What factors influence what we should do? Influence
Influence by factords having little to do with utilities
How does framing effect what we actually do relative to what we should do
If problem is framed as loss, we bcome risk seeking, if problem is framed as gain we become risk aversive
Explain instability of values
Worth different things to different people, how much is clean air worth, losing weight?
What is confirmation bias?
We want to know we’re okay
What is loss aversion?
We really hate to loose, loss aversion is a tendency to be far more sensitive to losses than gains
Are IQ tests valid?
good predictor in schools, IQ is related to work performance as well as income other factors also matter time spent working
What is cultural bias?
Intelligence tests may penalize some groups because doing well may require a knowledge of some mainstream stuff, what it means to be intelligent varies across cultures
In what way(s) is intelligence associated with cognitive performance measures?
Itelligence is related to the efficacy of how our brains work as well as the possession of keep perceptual skills, intelligence is linked to mental speeds, general intelligence is linked to working memory, the larger volume of neuronal cell bodies the more fluid intelligence, more intelligent individual seek out mental challenges which will increase the volume of their frontal lobes
How do genes and environmental influences impact intelligence? Or do they?
Genes account for half the variation in inteliigence genes matter most in adulthood and least in childhood , thousands of genes probably contribute each having a very small effect Wh
what are sunk costs
We'll go to avoid losing money
Perceived Justification
Ben and Jerrys
Will amnesic patients get better at mirror reading?
yes
How do our eyes play tricks on us
illusions
Hermann grid
Cells are more active when less white light is falling in their inhibitory surround
How do we make things three D from 2d image on retina:
Binocular disparity, occlusion, relative size, experience, linear perspective
Where is one place structure come from?
Motion
Will a schema go beyond an event>?
yes